A pressure drop model for condensation accounting for non-equilibrium effects

Jiange Xiao, Pega Hrnjak

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


A mechanistic pressure drop model is proposed in this paper for condensation in horizontal smooth round tubes in order to account for the non-equilibrium effects. The model makes use of a flow regime map and void fraction correlation as well as a mechanistic heat transfer model that are all developed for condensation of superheated vapor in a vapor-compression system. The model provide seamless transition between single-phase and two-phase regions including the superheated, condensing-superheated, two-phase, condensing-subcooled and subcooled regions. Diabatic flow visualizations are used to analyze the effects on pressure drop from the formation of waves. An enhancement factor to represent the frequency and magnitude of the waves is established using Kelvin-Helmholtz and Rayleigh-Taylor instability. The two-phase pressure drop is modeled based on the single-phase pressure drop correlations, the flow regimes, void fractions as well as the enhancement factor. Data obtained from R134a, R32, R1234ze(E), R1233zd(E) and R245fa with mass fluxes from 100 kg m−2 s−1 to 400 kg m−2 s−1 and heat fluxes from 5 kW m−2 to 15 kW m−2 inside two different tubes of 4 and 6 mm are used to validate the model.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)421-430
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer
StatePublished - Nov 2018


  • In-tube condensation
  • Non-equilibrium
  • Pressure drop model

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes


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