A Physics-Based Compact Model for Ultrathin Black Phosphorus FETs-Part II: Model Validation against Numerical and Experimental Data

Elahe Yarmoghaddam, Nazila Haratipour, Steven J. Koester, Shaloo Rakheja

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


In the first part of this article, a physics-based surface-potential compact model to describe current-voltage (I-V) relationship in few-layered ambipolar black phosphorus (BP) transistors is presented. The proposed model captures the essential physics of thin-film BP FETs by accounting for the effects of: 1) in-plane band-structure anisotropy in BP, as well as the asymmetry in electron and hole current conduction characteristics; 2) nonlinear Schottky-type source/drain contact resistances; 3) interface traps; 4) ambipolar current conduction in the device using two separate quasi-Fermi levels for electrons and holes; and 5) the effect of temperature on the model parameters. In this article, the model is validated against measured data of back-gated BP transistors with gate lengths of 1000 and 300 nm with the BP thickness of 7.3 and 8.1 nm and for the temperature range of 200-298 K. We also validate the model against numerical TCAD data of BP transistors with channel lengths of 300 and 600 nm and BP thickness of 6 nm. The model is also applied to unipolar 2-D FETs with channel materials, such as MoS2 and WSe2. Compared with prior BP FET models that are mainly suited for near-equilibrium transport and room-temperature operation, the model developed here shows excellent agreement with experimental and numerical data over broad bias and temperature range.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number8936555
Pages (from-to)397-405
Number of pages9
JournalIEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2020



  • 2-D materials
  • ambipolar transport
  • black phosphorus (BP)
  • compact model
  • experimental validation
  • numerical validation
  • Schottky barrier
  • surface potential

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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