A numerical study of particle wall-deposition in a turbulent square duct flow

C. M. Winkler, Sarma L. Rani, S. P. Vanka

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The deposition of dense solid particles in a downward, fully developed turbulent square duct flow at Reτ = 360, based on the mean friction velocity and the duct width, is studied using large eddy simulations of the fluid flow. The fluid and the particulate phases are treated using Eulerian and Lagrangian approaches, respectively. A finite-volume based, second-order accurate fractional step scheme is used to integrate the incompressible form of the unsteady, three-dimensional, filtered Navier-Stokes equations on an 80 × 80 × 128 grid. A dynamic subgrid kinetic energy model is used to account for the unresolved scales. The Lagrangian particle equation of motion includes the drag, lift, and gravity forces and is integrated using the fourth-order accurate Runge-Kutta scheme. Two values of particle to fluid density ratio (ρpf = 1000 and 8900) and five values of dimensionless particle diameter (dp/δ × 106 = 100, 250, 500, 1000 and 2000, δ is the duct width) are studied. Two particle number densities, consisting of 105 and 1.5 × 106 particles initially in the domain, are examined. Variations in the probability distribution function (PDF) of the particle deposition location with dimensionless particle response time, i.e. Stokes number, are presented. The deposition is seen to occur with greater probability near the center of the duct walls, than at the corners. The average streamwise and wall-normal deposition velocities of the particles increase with Stokes number, with their maxima occurring near the center of the duct wall. The computed deposition rates are compared to previously reported results for a circular pipe flow. It is observed that the deposition rates in a square duct are greater than those in a pipe flow, especially for the low Stokes number particles. Also, wall-deposition of the low Stokes number particles increases significantly by including the subgrid velocity fluctuations in computing the fluid forces on the particles. Two-way coupling and, to a greater extent, four-way coupling are seen to increase the deposition rates.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)12-25
Number of pages14
JournalPowder Technology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Nov 30 2006


  • Gas-particle flow
  • Large eddy simulation
  • Particle deposition

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemical Engineering


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