A novel synthesis of trans-unsaturated fatty acids by the Gram-positive commensal bacterium Enterococcus faecalis FA2-2

Tatiana Kondakova, Sneha Kumar, John E Cronan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

A key mechanism of Pseudomonas spp. adaptation to environmental stressors is their ability to convert the cis-unsaturated fatty acids of the membrane lipids to their trans-isomers to rigidify the membrane and thereby resist stresses. Although this Cti-catalyzed enzymatic isomerization has been well investigated in the P. putida paradigm, several bacterial species have been found to produce trans-unsaturated fatty acids. Although cti orthologs have only been reported in Gram-negative bacteria, we report that E. faecalis FA2-2 cultures synthesize trans-unsaturated fatty acids during growth by a mechanism similar of P. putida. Although the role of trans-unsaturated fatty acids (trans-UFAs)in E. faecalis remains obscure, our results indicate that organic solvents, as well as the membrane altering antibiotic, daptomycin, had no effect on trans-UFA formation in E. faecalis FA2-2. Moreover trans-UFA production in E. faecalis FA2-2 membranes was constant in oxidative stress conditions or when metal chelator EDTA was added, raising the question about the role of heme domain in cis-trans isomerization in E. faecalis FA2-2. Although growth temperature and growth phase had significant effects on cis-trans isomerization, the bulk physical properties of the membranes seems unlikely to be altered by the low levels of trans-UFA. Hence, any effects seems likely to be on membrane proteins and membrane enzyme activities. We also report investigations of cti gene distribution in bacteria was and suggest the distribution to be triggered by habitat population associations. Three major Cti clusters were defined, corresponding to Pseudomonas, Pseudoalteromonas and Vibrio Cti proteins.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)23-35
Number of pages13
JournalChemistry and Physics of Lipids
Volume222
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 1 2019

Fingerprint

Trans Fatty Acids
Enterococcus faecalis
Gram-Positive Bacteria
Unsaturated Fatty Acids
Bacteria
Membranes
Isomerization
Pseudomonas
Growth
Pseudoalteromonas
Daptomycin
Oxidative stress
Vibrio
Enzyme activity
Growth temperature
Membrane Lipids
Chelating Agents
Gram-Negative Bacteria
Heme
Edetic Acid

Keywords

  • Adaptation
  • Cis-trans isomerase
  • E. faecalis
  • Fatty acid
  • Heme
  • Membrane

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Cell Biology

Cite this

A novel synthesis of trans-unsaturated fatty acids by the Gram-positive commensal bacterium Enterococcus faecalis FA2-2. / Kondakova, Tatiana; Kumar, Sneha; Cronan, John E.

In: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids, Vol. 222, 01.08.2019, p. 23-35.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{a74dd7d5b8fa446b9c7ad021faa7c257,
title = "A novel synthesis of trans-unsaturated fatty acids by the Gram-positive commensal bacterium Enterococcus faecalis FA2-2",
abstract = "A key mechanism of Pseudomonas spp. adaptation to environmental stressors is their ability to convert the cis-unsaturated fatty acids of the membrane lipids to their trans-isomers to rigidify the membrane and thereby resist stresses. Although this Cti-catalyzed enzymatic isomerization has been well investigated in the P. putida paradigm, several bacterial species have been found to produce trans-unsaturated fatty acids. Although cti orthologs have only been reported in Gram-negative bacteria, we report that E. faecalis FA2-2 cultures synthesize trans-unsaturated fatty acids during growth by a mechanism similar of P. putida. Although the role of trans-unsaturated fatty acids (trans-UFAs)in E. faecalis remains obscure, our results indicate that organic solvents, as well as the membrane altering antibiotic, daptomycin, had no effect on trans-UFA formation in E. faecalis FA2-2. Moreover trans-UFA production in E. faecalis FA2-2 membranes was constant in oxidative stress conditions or when metal chelator EDTA was added, raising the question about the role of heme domain in cis-trans isomerization in E. faecalis FA2-2. Although growth temperature and growth phase had significant effects on cis-trans isomerization, the bulk physical properties of the membranes seems unlikely to be altered by the low levels of trans-UFA. Hence, any effects seems likely to be on membrane proteins and membrane enzyme activities. We also report investigations of cti gene distribution in bacteria was and suggest the distribution to be triggered by habitat population associations. Three major Cti clusters were defined, corresponding to Pseudomonas, Pseudoalteromonas and Vibrio Cti proteins.",
keywords = "Adaptation, Cis-trans isomerase, E. faecalis, Fatty acid, Heme, Membrane",
author = "Tatiana Kondakova and Sneha Kumar and Cronan, {John E}",
year = "2019",
month = "8",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.chemphyslip.2019.04.010",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "222",
pages = "23--35",
journal = "Chemistry and Physics of Lipids",
issn = "0009-3084",
publisher = "Elsevier Ireland Ltd",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - A novel synthesis of trans-unsaturated fatty acids by the Gram-positive commensal bacterium Enterococcus faecalis FA2-2

AU - Kondakova, Tatiana

AU - Kumar, Sneha

AU - Cronan, John E

PY - 2019/8/1

Y1 - 2019/8/1

N2 - A key mechanism of Pseudomonas spp. adaptation to environmental stressors is their ability to convert the cis-unsaturated fatty acids of the membrane lipids to their trans-isomers to rigidify the membrane and thereby resist stresses. Although this Cti-catalyzed enzymatic isomerization has been well investigated in the P. putida paradigm, several bacterial species have been found to produce trans-unsaturated fatty acids. Although cti orthologs have only been reported in Gram-negative bacteria, we report that E. faecalis FA2-2 cultures synthesize trans-unsaturated fatty acids during growth by a mechanism similar of P. putida. Although the role of trans-unsaturated fatty acids (trans-UFAs)in E. faecalis remains obscure, our results indicate that organic solvents, as well as the membrane altering antibiotic, daptomycin, had no effect on trans-UFA formation in E. faecalis FA2-2. Moreover trans-UFA production in E. faecalis FA2-2 membranes was constant in oxidative stress conditions or when metal chelator EDTA was added, raising the question about the role of heme domain in cis-trans isomerization in E. faecalis FA2-2. Although growth temperature and growth phase had significant effects on cis-trans isomerization, the bulk physical properties of the membranes seems unlikely to be altered by the low levels of trans-UFA. Hence, any effects seems likely to be on membrane proteins and membrane enzyme activities. We also report investigations of cti gene distribution in bacteria was and suggest the distribution to be triggered by habitat population associations. Three major Cti clusters were defined, corresponding to Pseudomonas, Pseudoalteromonas and Vibrio Cti proteins.

AB - A key mechanism of Pseudomonas spp. adaptation to environmental stressors is their ability to convert the cis-unsaturated fatty acids of the membrane lipids to their trans-isomers to rigidify the membrane and thereby resist stresses. Although this Cti-catalyzed enzymatic isomerization has been well investigated in the P. putida paradigm, several bacterial species have been found to produce trans-unsaturated fatty acids. Although cti orthologs have only been reported in Gram-negative bacteria, we report that E. faecalis FA2-2 cultures synthesize trans-unsaturated fatty acids during growth by a mechanism similar of P. putida. Although the role of trans-unsaturated fatty acids (trans-UFAs)in E. faecalis remains obscure, our results indicate that organic solvents, as well as the membrane altering antibiotic, daptomycin, had no effect on trans-UFA formation in E. faecalis FA2-2. Moreover trans-UFA production in E. faecalis FA2-2 membranes was constant in oxidative stress conditions or when metal chelator EDTA was added, raising the question about the role of heme domain in cis-trans isomerization in E. faecalis FA2-2. Although growth temperature and growth phase had significant effects on cis-trans isomerization, the bulk physical properties of the membranes seems unlikely to be altered by the low levels of trans-UFA. Hence, any effects seems likely to be on membrane proteins and membrane enzyme activities. We also report investigations of cti gene distribution in bacteria was and suggest the distribution to be triggered by habitat population associations. Three major Cti clusters were defined, corresponding to Pseudomonas, Pseudoalteromonas and Vibrio Cti proteins.

KW - Adaptation

KW - Cis-trans isomerase

KW - E. faecalis

KW - Fatty acid

KW - Heme

KW - Membrane

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85065135383&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85065135383&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.chemphyslip.2019.04.010

DO - 10.1016/j.chemphyslip.2019.04.010

M3 - Article

VL - 222

SP - 23

EP - 35

JO - Chemistry and Physics of Lipids

JF - Chemistry and Physics of Lipids

SN - 0009-3084

ER -