A novel control design for high-speed Atomic Force Microscopy

Ram Sai Gorugantu, Srinivasa M. Salapaka

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution


In this paper, we propose a novel transform-based imaging mode for Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), where the cantilever oscillations are made to track the output of a mockmodel system. The states of the resulting tracking error dynamics is appended by another set of suitably designed states, which enable a specific time-varying coordinate transformation, which in turn results in dynamic models that are very conducive to linear control synthesis design methods. The proposed imaging mode enables higher throughput in AFM imaging without the need for significantly high resonant frequency AFM cantilever probes. This method overcomes the fundamental limitation of nonlinear input-output relationship in Amplitude Modulation AFM (AM-AFM) imaging mode by applying an appropriately chosen real-time transform on the output signal. In combination with model-based reference generation, the proposed real-time transform yields linear dynamical input-output characteristics. Simulations on detailed AFM models with H∞ optimal control designs show the efficacy of the proposed imaging mode for feature bandwidths higher than 5% of the cantilever resonant frequency.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publication2023 American Control Conference, ACC 2023
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Number of pages6
ISBN (Electronic)9798350328066
StatePublished - 2023
Event2023 American Control Conference, ACC 2023 - San Diego, United States
Duration: May 31 2023Jun 2 2023

Publication series

NameProceedings of the American Control Conference
ISSN (Print)0743-1619


Conference2023 American Control Conference, ACC 2023
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CitySan Diego

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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