A novel adaptive mixed reality system for stroke rehabilitation: Principles, proof of concept, and preliminary application in 2 patients

Yinpeng Chen, Margaret Duff, Nicole Lehrer, Sheng Min Liu, Paul Blake, Steven L. Wolf, Hari Sundaram, Thanassis Rikakis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This article presents the principles of an adaptive mixed reality rehabilitation (AMRR) system, as well as the training process and results from 2 stroke survivors who received AMRR therapy, to illustrate how the system can be used in the clinic. The AMRR system integrates traditional rehabilitation practices with state-of-the-art computational and motion capture technologies to create an engaging environment to train reaching movements. The system provides real-time, intuitive, and integrated audio and visual feedback (based on detailed kinematic data) representative of goal accomplishment, activity performance, and body function during a reaching task. The AMRR system also provides a quantitative kinematic evaluation that measures the deviation of the stroke survivor's movement from an idealized, unimpaired movement. The therapist, using the quantitative measure and knowledge and observations, can adapt the feedback and physical environment of the AMRR system throughout therapy to address each participant's individual impairments and progress. Individualized training plans, kinematic improvements measured over the entire therapy period, and the changes in relevant clinical scales and kinematic movement attributes before and after the month-long therapy are presented for 2 participants. The substantial improvements made by both participants after AMRR therapy demonstrate that this system has the potential to considerably enhance the recovery of stroke survivors with varying impairments for both kinematic improvements and functional habilitiez.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)212-230
Number of pages19
JournalTopics in Stroke Rehabilitation
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jan 1 2011
Externally publishedYes


  • adaptive therapy
  • computational motion capture
  • kinematic analysis
  • mixed reality rehabilitation
  • multimedia feedback
  • reach and grasp
  • upper extremity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Rehabilitation
  • Community and Home Care
  • Clinical Neurology


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