A Note-Restructuring Intervention Increases Students’ Exam Scores

Dov Cohen, Emily Kim, Jacinth Tan, Mary Ann Winkelmes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


It was hypothesized that students’ learning would be enhanced by an intervention getting them to elaborate on and restructure the notes they had taken in lecture. Students in a research methods course were randomly assigned to weeks in which they would turn in a copy of their restructured lecture notes along with a very brief summary of the class. This intervention required students to spend quality time-on-task. Subsequently, results of exam questions from weeks in which students completed the intervention were compared to weeks they did not do so. The intervention improved student performance by a full class grade (11 percent, effect size d = 1.1) and it improved performance equally for students at the top, bottom, and middle of the class.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)95-99
Number of pages5
JournalCollege Teaching
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jul 1 2013


  • active learning
  • comprehension
  • deliberate practice
  • educational intervention
  • lecture classes
  • note-taking
  • testing performance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education


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