To determine if a multi-analyte cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) peptide signature can be used to differentiate Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) and normal aged controls (NL), and to determine if this signature can also predict progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to AD, analysis of CSF samples was done on the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) dataset. The profiles of 320 peptides from baseline CSF samples of 287 subjects over a 3–6 year period were analyzed. As expected, the peptide most able to differentiate between AD vs. NL was found to be Apolipoprotein E. Other peptides, some of which are not classically associated with AD, such as heart fatty acid binding protein, and the neuronal pentraxin receptor, also differentiated disease states. A sixteen-analyte signature was identified which differentiated AD vs. NL with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.89, which was better than any combination of amyloid beta (1–42), tau, and phos-pho-181 tau. This same signature, when applied to a new and independent data set, also strongly predicted both probability and rate of future progression of MCI subjects to AD, better than traditional markers. These data suggest that multivariate peptide signatures from CSF predict MCI to AD progression, and point to potentially new roles for certain proteins not typically associated with AD.
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