A model for high temperature hydrogen attack in carbon steels under constrained void growth

Mohsen Dadfarnia, May L. Martin, David E. Moore, Steve E. Orwig, Petros Sofronis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Petrochemical vessels exposed to high temperature and high pressure hydrogen gas may suffer from high temperature hydrogen attack (HTHA). HTHA is a hydrogen-induced degradation of carbon steels whereby internal hydrogen reacting with carbides forms methane gas bubbles, mainly on grain boundaries (GBs), with an associated loss in strength that can result in premature fracture of structural components. The design of equipment against HTHA is primarily based on the use of the empirical Nelson curves which are phenomenological and do not account for the underlying failure mechanisms and the material microstructure. Starting from the underlying deformation and fracture mechanisms, we present a simple constraint-based model for failure of steels by HTHA which involves growth of GB voids due to coupled diffusion of atoms along the GBs and creep of the matrix surrounding the voids. Since voids form only on some of the GBs, the uncavitated GBs geometrically constrain the growth of voids on the cavitated ones. The model is used to study void growth in HTHA of 21/4Cr–1Mo steel both in the presence and absence of externally applied stress. In the latter case, the model predictions are in good agreement with experimental results. Lastly, the model is used to develop a Nelson-curve type diagram in the presence of external stress in which the curves demarcating the safe/no-safe regimes are functions of the time to failure. This diagram though should be viewed as the result of the application of a new methodology toward devising mechanism-based Nelson curves and not as proposed new Nelson curves for the steel under investigation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalInternational Journal of Fracture
Volume219
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 1 2019

Fingerprint

Voids
Hydrogen
Carbon steel
Steel
Carbon
Attack
Grain Boundary
Grain boundaries
Curve
Temperature
Model
Diagram
Failure Mechanism
Methane
Creep
Gases
Petrochemicals
Vessel
Prediction Model
Bubble

Keywords

  • Carbon steels
  • Constrained void growth
  • Failure
  • Hydrogen attack
  • Modelling

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computational Mechanics
  • Modeling and Simulation
  • Mechanics of Materials

Cite this

A model for high temperature hydrogen attack in carbon steels under constrained void growth. / Dadfarnia, Mohsen; Martin, May L.; Moore, David E.; Orwig, Steve E.; Sofronis, Petros.

In: International Journal of Fracture, Vol. 219, No. 1, 01.09.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Dadfarnia, Mohsen ; Martin, May L. ; Moore, David E. ; Orwig, Steve E. ; Sofronis, Petros. / A model for high temperature hydrogen attack in carbon steels under constrained void growth. In: International Journal of Fracture. 2019 ; Vol. 219, No. 1.
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