A Model for Copper Electroplating of Multilayer Printed Wiring Boards

Thomas Kessler, Richard Alkire

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


An analytical model is developed for predicting electroplated copper thickness distributions on multilayer printed wiring boards. Plated copper thickness distributions are predicted within a plated-through hole (PTH) by coupled solutions of the potential, kinetics, and mass diffusion equations. The model establishes: (a) correlation parameters including geometric, charge transfer, mass transfer, and ohmic solution effects, and (b) the minimum electrolyte convection required in a PTH to avoid rough or powdery deposits. Predictions are compared with experimental data obtained over a wide range of operating scales from breakers to full-scale production tanks.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)990-999
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of the Electrochemical Society
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 1976


  • copper deposition
  • current distribution
  • mathematical model
  • multilayer circuit board

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Electrochemistry
  • Materials Chemistry


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