A Library of Second-Order Models for Synchronous Machines

Olaoluwapo Ajala, Alejandro Dominguez-Garcia, Peter Sauer, Daniel Liberzon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This article presents a library of second-order models for synchronous machines that can be utilized in power system dynamic performance analysis and control design. The models have a similar structure to that of the so-called classical model in that they consist of two dynamic states, the power angle and the angular speed. However, unlike the classical model, they find applications beyond first swing stability analysis, i.e., they can be utilized for multi-swing transient stability analysis. The models are developed through a systematic reduction of a nineteenth-order model using singular perturbation techniques. They are validated by comparing their response with that of the high-order model from which they were derived, as well as that of other synchronous machine models existing in the literature, such as the so-called two-axis model and the so-called one-axis model.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number9113748
Pages (from-to)4803-4814
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 2020


  • Synchronous machines
  • reduced-order modeling
  • singular perturbation analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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