API misuses are prevalent and extremely harmful. Despite various techniques have been proposed for API-misuse detection, it is not even clear how different types of API misuses distribute and whether existing techniques have covered all major types of API misuses. Therefore, in this paper, we conduct the first large-scale empirical study on API misuses based on 528,546 historical bug-fixing commits from GitHub (from 2011 to 2018). By leveraging a state-of-the-art fine-grained AST differencing tool, GumTree, we extract more than one million bug-fixing edit operations, 51.7% of which are API misuses. We further systematically classify API misuses into nine different categories according to the edit operations and context. We also extract various frequent API-misuse patterns based on the categories and corresponding operations, which can be complementary to existing API-misuse detection tools. Our study reveals various practical guidelines regarding the importance of different types of API misuses. Furthermore, based on our dataset, we perform a user study to manually analyze the usage constraints of 10 patterns to explore whether the mined patterns can guide the design of future API-misuse detection tools. Specifically, we find that 7,541 potential misuses still exist in latest Apache projects and 149 of them have been reported to developers. To date, 57 have already been confirmed and fixed (with 15 rejected misuses correspondingly). The results indicate the importance of studying historical API misuses and the promising future of employing our mined patterns for detecting unknown API misuses.