A high-rate fingerprinting code

Jean François Jourdas, Pierre Moulin

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution


In fingerprinting, a signature, unique to each user, is embedded in each distributed copy of a multimedia content, in order to identify potential illegal redistributors. As an alternative to the vast majority of fingerprinting codes built upon error-correcting codes with a high minimum distance, we propose the construction of a random-like fingerprinting code, intended to operate at rates close to fingerprinting capacity. For such codes, the notion of minimum distance has little relevance. As an example, we present results for a length 288,000 code that can accommodate 33 millions of users and 50 colluders against the averaging attack. The encoding is done by interleaving the users' identifying bitstrings and encoding them multiple times with recursive systematic convolutional codes. The decoding is done in two stages. The first outputs a small set of possible colluders using a bank of list Viterbi decoders. The second stage prunes this set using correlation decoding. We study this scheme and assess its performance through Monte-Carlo simulations. The results show that at rates ranging from 30% to 50% of capacity, we still have a low error probability (e.g. 1%).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationProceedings of SPIE-IS and T Electronic Imaging - Security, Forensics, Steganography, and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents X
StatePublished - 2008
EventSecurity, Forensics, Steganography, and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents X - San Jose, CA, United States
Duration: Jan 28 2008Jan 30 2008

Publication series

NameProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
ISSN (Print)0277-786X


OtherSecurity, Forensics, Steganography, and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents X
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CitySan Jose, CA


  • Fingerprinting code

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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