A heat transfer model for condensation accounting for non-equilibrium effects

Jiange Xiao, Pega Hrnjak

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


A heat transfer model is proposed in this paper for condensation of annular and stratified flow in horizontal smooth round tubes accounting for the non-equilibrium effects. The model is based on a non-equilibrium flow regime map and void fraction correlation that is developed from diabatic flow visualization and film thickness measurement. The model unifies single-phase and two-phase heat transfer models into one continuous function throughout the superheated, condensing-superheated, two-phase, condensing-subcooled and subcooled regions with seamless transition in between. Film heat transfer coefficient based on the interfacial temperature of the flow is used as a tool for the modeling in the presence of two-phase flow, which is later converted back to heat transfer coefficient based on the bulk temperature of the flow. The two-phase flow model is developed for the annular and stratified flow. The effects of interfacial waviness, liquid entrainment, wall subcooling, gravity, tube diameter as well as non-equilibrium are discussed in separated sections. Data obtained from different refrigerants and working conditions are used for the validation of the model.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)201-210
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer
StatePublished - 2017


  • Heat transfer model
  • In-tube condensation
  • Non-equilibrium

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes


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