A generalized maximum entropy approach to Bregman Co-clustering and matrix approximation

Arindam Banerjee, Inderjit Dhillon, Joydeep Ghosh, Srujana Merugu, Dharmendra S. Modha

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Co-clustering, or simultaneous clustering of rows and columns of a two-dimensional data matrix, is rapidly becoming a powerful data analysis technique. Co-clustering has enjoyed wide success in varied application domains such as text clustering, gene-microarray analysis, natural language processing and image, speech and video analysis. In this paper, we introduce a partitional co-clustering formulation that is driven by the search for a good matrix approximation - every co-clustering is associated with an approximation of the original data matrix and the quality of co-clustering is determined by the approximation error. We allow the approximation error to be measured using a large class of loss functions called Bregman divergences that include squared Euclidean distance and KL-divergence as special cases. In addition, we permit multiple structurally different co-clustering schemes that preserve various linear statistics of the original data matrix. To accomplish the above tasks, we introduce a new minimum Bregman information (MBI) principle that simultaneously generalizes the maximum entropy and standard least squares principles, and leads to a matrix approximation that is optimal among all generalized additive models in a certain natural parameter space. Analysis based on this principle yields an elegant meta algorithm, special cases of which include most previously known alternate minimization based clustering algorithms such as kmeans and co-clustering algorithms such as information theoretic (Dhillon et al., 2003b) and minimum sum-squared residue co-clustering (Cho et al., 2004). To demonstrate the generality and flexibility of our co-clustering framework, we provide examples and empirical evidence on a variety of problem domains and also describe novel co-clustering applications such as missing value prediction and compression of categorical data matrices.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1919-1986
Number of pages68
JournalJournal of Machine Learning Research
StatePublished - Aug 2007
Externally publishedYes


  • Bregman divergences
  • Bregman information
  • Co-clustering
  • Matrix approximation
  • Maximum entropy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Artificial Intelligence
  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Statistics and Probability


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