A dynamic photovoltaic model incorporating capacitive and reverse-bias characteristics

Katherine A. Kim, Chenyang Xu, Lei Jin, Philip T. Krein

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Photovoltaics (PVs) are typically modeled only for their forward-biased dc characteristics, as in the commonly used single-diode model. While this approach accurately models the I-V curve under steady forward bias, it lacks dynamic and reverse-bias characteristics. The dynamic characteristics, primarily parallel capacitance and series inductance, affect operation when a PV cell or string interacts with switching converters or experiences sudden transients. Reverse-bias characteristics are often ignored because PV devices are not intended to operate in the reverse-biased region. However, when partial shading occurs on a string of PVs, the shaded cell can become reverse biased and develop into a hot spot that permanently degrades the cell. To fully examine PV behavior under hot spots and various other faults, reverse-bias characteristics must also be modeled. This study develops a comprehensive mathematical PV model based on circuit components that accounts for forward bias, reverse bias, and dynamic characteristics. Using a series of three experimental tests on an unilluminated PV cell, all required model parameters are determined. The model is implemented in MATLAB Simulink and accurately models the measured data.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number6584777
Pages (from-to)1334-1341
Number of pages8
JournalIEEE Journal of Photovoltaics
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2013


  • Characterization
  • dynamic model
  • photovoltaic cells
  • reverse breakdown
  • simulation tool

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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