A cross-cultural and cross-media comparison of female nudity in advertising

Hye Jin Paek, Michelle Nelson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This study examines to what extent degrees of nudity presented in advertising differ across five countries (Brazil, China, South Korea, Thailand, and the U.S.). Content is examined by media type (TV vs. magazine) and product category (congruent vs. others). Results show that Thai and U.S. ads employ the highest degrees of nudity, whereas Chinese ads present the lowest degrees. Across all the countries, magazine ads and congruent-product ads employ higher degrees of nudity than TV ads and non-congruent product ads. The effect of product type on degrees of nudity is stronger in TV ads than in magazine ads and the interaction effect between media type and product type also varies across the countries. Our study provides richer and more specific implications for global advertising strategy with respect to representation of models and use of sex appeals.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)145-167
Number of pages23
JournalJournal of Promotion Management
Issue number1-2
StatePublished - 2007


  • Advertising
  • Congruence
  • Content analysis
  • Cross-cultural research
  • Female
  • Media
  • Nudity
  • Sex

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Marketing


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