A critical examination of multidimensionality within the Hypomanic Personality Scale

Talia R. Berson, Sarah H. Sperry, Molly A. Walsh, Thomas R. Kwapil

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: The Hypomanic Personality Scale (HPS) assesses bipolar spectrum psychopathology and risk for bipolar disorders. Despite the developers' intent to create a scale that provides a unitary score, several studies have examined whether the HPS has a multidimensional structure. These models have been unable to identify a replicable multidimensional structure, with models varying from fairly similar to entirely dissimilar, and have suffered from theoretical and methodological concerns. Procedures: We therefore examined the multidimensional structure of the HPS in a large undergraduate and adult sample (n = 5002). Main findings: We failed to reproduce factors with equal congruence to those of previously published models. Principle conclusions: We concluded that the HPS lacks factorial validity in previous research as a multidimensional measure of bipolar spectrum psychopathology. We further recommend the creation of a novel multidimensional assessment of bipolar spectrum psychopathology developed from a theoretically driven, comprehensive model, rather than examining a multidimensional model of a pre-existing measure, such as the HPS.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number152306
JournalComprehensive Psychiatry
StatePublished - May 2022


  • Bipolar disorders
  • Bipolar spectrum psychopathology
  • Factor analysis
  • Multidimensional
  • Psychometric assessment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Clinical Psychology


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