A Comprehensive Comparison for Battery Cathode Leaching Processes

Zheng Liu, Jarom G. Sederholm, Kai Wei Lan, Marta C. Hatzell, Nicola H. Perry, Nenad Miljkovic, Paul V. Braun, Yumeng Li, Pingfeng Wang

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Abstract

With the increasing demand for electric vehicles, battery recycling is becoming a critical topic for lowering the environmental impact of wasted batteries. Hydrometallurgical recycling is a widely used method, and the cathode leaching process is essential for hydro metallurgical recycling. This work comprehensively compares leaching processes for LCO, NMC, and LFP cathodes using life cycle assessment. Different leaching processes use different acids, leaching temperatures, and reaction times. A score is calculated based on the environmental impact of the leaching process and the recycling rates of all valuable metals. This score can help identify the best leaching process for obtaining the most valuable metals with the least environmental impact. From this study, we conclude that 2M sulfuric acid with hydrogen peroxide is the best leaching solution for LCO, 2M sulfuric acid with hydrogen peroxide is the best leaching choice for NMC, and 3M sodium persulfate is the best leaching process for LFP.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publication2023 IEEE Transportation Electrification Conference and Expo, ITEC 2023
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
ISBN (Electronic)9798350397420
DOIs
StatePublished - 2023
Externally publishedYes
Event2023 IEEE Transportation Electrification Conference and Expo, ITEC 2023 - Detroit, United States
Duration: Jun 21 2023Jun 23 2023

Publication series

Name2023 IEEE Transportation Electrification Conference and Expo, ITEC 2023

Conference

Conference2023 IEEE Transportation Electrification Conference and Expo, ITEC 2023
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CityDetroit
Period6/21/236/23/23

Keywords

  • Battery recycling
  • Cathode active material
  • Life cycle assessment
  • Lithium-ion battery

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Automotive Engineering
  • Transportation
  • Control and Optimization

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