A Comparison of Dietary Intake Between Individuals Undergoing Maintenance Hemodialysis in the United Kingdom and China

Yan Song, Daniel S. March, Annabel Biruete, Brandon M. Kistler, Daniel D.G. Nixon, Patrick J. Highton, Barbara P. Vogt, Nicola Ruddock, Kenneth R. Wilund, Alice C. Smith, James O. Burton

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: Protein-energy wasting is highly prevalent in people with end-stage kidney disease receiving regular hemodialysis. Currently, it is unclear what the optimal nutritional recommendations are, which is further complicated by differences in dietary patterns between countries. The aim of the study was to understand and compare dietary intake between individuals receiving hemodialysis in Leicester, UK and Nantong, China. Methods: The study assessed 40 UK and 44 Chinese participants’ dietary intake over a period of 14 days using 24-hour diet recall interviews. Nutritional blood parameters were obtained from medical records. Food consumed by participants in the UK and China was analyzed using the Nutritics and Nutrition calculator to quantify nutritional intake. Results: Energy and protein intake were comparable between UK and Chinese participants, but with both below the recommended daily intake. Potassium intake was higher in UK participants compared to Chinese participants (2,115 [888] versus 1,159 [861] mg/d; P < .001), as was calcium (618 [257] versus 360 [312] mg/d; P < .001) and phosphate intake (927 [485] versus 697 [434] mg/d; P = .007). Vitamin C intake was lower in UK participants compared to their Chinese counterparts (39 [51] versus 64 [42] mg/d; P = .024). Data are reported here as median (interquartile range). Conclusion: Both UK and Chinese hemodialysis participants have insufficient protein and energy in their diet. New strategies are required to increase protein and energy intakes. All participants had inadequate daily intake of vitamins C and D; there may well be a role in the oral supplementation of these vitamins, and further studies are urgently needed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)224-233
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Renal Nutrition
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology
  • Nutrition and Dietetics
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)


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