A comparative study of meaning of working and work values in developed and developing countries

Elena Zavyalova, Anna Akinshina, Alexandre Ardichvili, K. Peter Kuchinke, Maria Cseh, Zsolt Nemeskéri, Urmat M. Tynaliev

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This article presents the results of a comparative study of the meaning of work and work values in developed capitalist and developing post-socialist countries. The authors utilised the meaning of working (MOW) methodology. The study sample consisted of 724 respondents from five countries: Hungary, Russia, Kyrgyzstan, Germany and the USA. The value of work in relation to other life domains differed among countries: for Hungary and Russia, the value of work came after family and leisure, while in other countries work took second place in importance after family. Moreover, in Hungary and Russia overall value of work was significantly lower than in other countries. The items that differentiated between developed (Germany and the USA) and developing countries (Hungary, Russia, Kyrgyzstan) are: importance of income, status, interesting contacts, and interesting work. For the cluster of developing countries, the value of these items was significantly lower, signifying a presence of avoidance motivation that is opposite to achievement motivation.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)207-227
JournalInternational Journal of Transitions and Innovation Systems
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jan 1 2011


  • meaning of working
  • achievement motivation
  • avoidance motivation
  • developed countries
  • developing countries
  • work values
  • USA
  • United States
  • Germany
  • Hungary
  • Kyrgyzstan
  • Russia
  • transition economies
  • post-socialist countries
  • MOW


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