The extracellular domain of the matrix protein 2 (M2e) of influenza viruses is highly conserved among all influenza A subtypes, making it a suitable target for a universal influenza vaccine. In this study, we demonstrated an enhanced immune response and protection of a chimeric M2e vaccine against influenza A viruses using our newly developed vaccine platform, the norovirus P particle, to present the M2e peptide. The 23-amino acid peptide was inserted into one of the surface loops of the P protein, resulting in 24 copies of M2e presented on each P particle. Significantly (P< 0.001) increased antibody responses to M2e were observed in mice immunized with the P particle-M2e chimera compared with those immunized with the free M2e peptides. Mice immunized with the P particle-M2e vaccine were fully protected (100% survived) against lethal challenge of a mouse adapted human influenza virus PR8 (H1N1), while only low survival rates (<12.5%) were found in mice immunized with the free M2e peptides or wild type P particle. In addition, the mouse sera collected after immunization with the P particle-M2e vaccine were able to block the binding of norovirus virus-like particle and P particle to histo-blood group antigen receptors. These results suggest that the P particle-M2e chimera can be used as dual vaccine against both noroviruses and influenza viruses.
- Dual vaccine
- P particle
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Medicine
- Immunology and Microbiology(all)
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
- Infectious Diseases