A 7 Gb/s Embedded Clock Transceiver for Energy Proportional Links

Tejasvi Anand, Mrunmay Talegaonkar, Ahmed Elkholy, Saurabh Saxena, Amr Elshazly, Pavan Kumar Hanumolu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


A rapid-on/off transceiver for embedded clock architecture that enables energy proportional communication over the serial link is presented. In an energy proportional link, energy consumed by serial link is proportional to the amount of data communicated. Energy proportionality can be achieved by scaling the serial link power linearly with the link utilization, and fine grained rapid power state transition (rapid-on/off) is one such technique which can achieve this objective. In this paper, architecture and circuit techniques to achieve rapid-on/off in PLL, transmitter and receiver are discussed. Background phase calibration technique in PLL and CDR phase calibration logic in receiver enable instantaneous lock on power-on. The proposed transceiver demonstrates power scalability with a wide range of link utilization and, therefore, helps in improving overall system efficiency. Fabricated in 65 nm CMOS technology, the 7 Gb/s transceiver achieves power-on-lock in less than 20 ns. Proposed PLL achieves power-on-lock in 1 ns. The transceiver achieves power scaling by 44 ×(63.7 mW-to-1.43 mW) and energy efficiency degradation by only 2.2 ×(9.1 pJ/bit-to-20.5 pJ/bit), when the effective data rate (link utilization) changes by 100 ×(7 Gb/s-to-70 Mb/s). The proposed transceiver occupies an active die area of 0.39 mm2.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number7265108
Pages (from-to)3101-3119
Number of pages19
JournalIEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2015


  • Burst mode
  • I/O
  • PLL
  • Transceiver
  • embedded clock
  • energy efficient
  • energy proportional
  • fast power-on
  • low power
  • power scalable
  • rapid on/off
  • serial link

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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