A 3D petrographic analysis for concrete freeze-thaw protection

Yu Song, Robbie M. Damiani, Chuanyue Shen, Daniel I. Castaneda, David A. Lange

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Petrographic analysis is routinely implemented to measure air void parameters for predicting freeze-thaw durability of concrete. The 1D or 2D measurements obtained from polished concrete sections are used to infer 3D protection of the paste. Since an arbitrary point in a section view may be partially protected by air voids that are not intersected, a stereological model is proposed to consider both intersected and un-intersected voids. The model is tested with a group of concrete mixtures with varying air entrainment, mix proportion, and aggregate type. As compared with the 2D analysis, this 3D analysis indicates a higher percent of cement paste being protected. When equating the protection range to Powers' spacing factor, it is found that roughly 98% of paste is protected in 3D. Findings in this study also align with results obtained by other authors using numerical simulation and computed tomography. This model offers a realistic concrete freeze-thaw assessment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number105952
JournalCement and Concrete Research
StatePublished - Feb 2020


  • 3D modeling
  • Air void analysis
  • Freeze-thaw
  • Image analysis
  • PPV analysis
  • Paste protection
  • Petrography
  • Spacing factor
  • Unfolding

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Building and Construction
  • General Materials Science


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