A low-power source-synchronous multi-Gb/s transceiver is presented. Supply voltage is aggressively scaled to reduce power, and the speed penalty resulting from low-voltage operation is overcome by multiplexing transmitter/receiver synchronized by low-rate multi-phase clocks. Phase spacing errors incurred by device mismatches are corrected using a self-calibration scheme. The proposed phase calibration method uses a single digital DLL to calibrate all the phases, which makes it insensitive to offsets in the calibrating DLL. Fabricated in a 65-nm CMOS process, energy efficiency and data rate of the prototype transceiver vary from 0.29 to 0.58 pJ/bit and 1 to 6 Gb/s, respectively, as the supply voltage changes from 0.45 to 0.7 V.
- Low-power I/O
- multi-phase calibration
- near-threshold-voltage circuit design
- near-threshold-voltage phase-locked loop (PLL)
- source-synchronous transceiver
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering