Viral contamination of drinking water due to fecal contamination is difficult to detect and treat effectively, leading to frequent outbreaks worldwide. The purpose of this paper is to report on the molecular mechanism for unprecedented high virus removal from a practical sand filter. Sand filters functionalized using a water extract of Moringa oleifera (MO) seeds, functionalized sand (f-sand) filters, achieved a ∼7 log10 virus removal. These tests were conducted with MS2 bacteriophage, a recognized surrogate for pathogenic norovirus and rotavirus. We studied the molecular mechanism of this high removal since it can have important implications for sand filtration, the most common water treatment technology worldwide. Our data reveal that the virus removal activity of f-sand is due to the presence of a chitin-binding protein, M. oleifera chitin-binding protein (MoCBP) on f-sand. Standard column experiments were supported by proteomic analysis and molecular docking simulations. Our simulations show that MoCBP binds preferentially to MS2 capsid proteins demonstrating that specific molecular interactions are responsible for enhanced virus removal. In addition, we simplified the process of making f-sand and evinced how it could be regenerated using saline water. At present, no definitive solution exists for the challenge of treating fecally contaminated drinking and irrigation water for viruses without using technologies that demand high energy or chemical consumption. We propose functionalized sand (f-sand) filters as a highly effective, energy-efficient, and practical technology for virus removal applicable to both developing and developed countries.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Environmental Chemistry