Electrically conductive 3D periodic microscaffolds are fabricated using a particle-free direct ink writing approach for use as neuronal growth and electrophysiological recording platforms. A poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)/pyrrole ink, followed by chemical in situ polymerization of pyrrole, enables hydrogel printing through nozzles as small as 1 µm. These conductive hydrogels can pattern complex 2D and 3D structures and have good biocompatibility with test cell cultures (≈94.5% viability after 7 days). Hydrogel arrays promote extensive neurite outgrowth of cultured Aplysia californica pedal ganglion neurons. This platform allows extracellular electrophysiological recording of steady-state and stimulated electrical neuronal activities. In summation, this 3D conductive ink printing process enables the preparation of biocompatible and micron-sized structures to create customized in vitro electrophysiological recording platforms.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number2010246
JournalAdvanced Functional Materials
Issue number14
StatePublished - Apr 1 2021


  • 3D printing
  • Aplysia californica
  • conductive hydrogel
  • microfabricated neuron recording

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics


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