3D Holographic Photonic Crystals Containing Embedded Functional Features

Runyu Zhang, Hailong Ning, Neil A. Krueger, Daniel Bacon-Brown, Paul V. Braun

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Lack of good ways to incorporate functional features and materials into 3D architectures has impeded progress in 3D photonic crystals (PhCs). Utilizing a modified transfer printing strategy, this study demonstrates the introduction of functional external materials of a diversity of form-factors into the interior of holographically defined 3D PhCs. PhCs containing solid SU-8 features, layers of porous silicon (PSi) or emissive LaF3:Nd3+ nanocrystals, and silica colloids are formed. For the LaF3:Nd3+ layer, both enhancement (≈50%) and suppression (≈25%) of the spontaneous emission (λ ≈ 1.32 μm) could be realized by modifying the position of the photonic crystal stop band relative to the rare earth emission. Finite-difference time-domain simulations suggest the observed spontaneous emission modification is a result of Bragg mirror-like reflection, while the measured enhancement is likely caused by the spontaneous emission coupling to a defect mode. Via electrodeposition, this study demonstrates structural inversion of a low refractive index photonic crystal (photoresist-based) to a high (Cu2O) refractive index contrast photonic crystal in the presence of an embedded defect, providing an opportunity to enhance the light-matter interactions using a materials system with transparency in the visible.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1533-1540
Number of pages8
JournalAdvanced Optical Materials
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 1 2016


  • emission modification
  • functional defects
  • holographic photonic crystals
  • material conversion
  • transfer printing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics


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