3-D QSAR Investigations of the Inhibition of Leishmania major Farnesyl Pyrophosphate Synthase by Bisphosphonates

John M. Sanders, Aurora Ortiz Gómez, Junhong Mao, Gary A. Meints, Erin M. Van Brussel, Agnieszka Burzynska, Pawel Kafarski, Dolores González-Pacanowska, Eric Oldfield

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

We report the activities of 62 bisphosphonatesas inhibitors of the Leishmania major mevalonate/isoprene biosynthesis pathway enzyme, farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase. The compounds investigated exhibit activities (IC 50 values) ranging from ∼100 nM to ∼80 μM (corresponding to Ki values as low as 10 nM). The most active compounds were found to be zoledronate (whose single-crystal X-ray structure is reported), pyridinyl-ethane-1-hydroxy-1,1-bisphosphonates or picolyl aminomethylene bisphosphonates. However, N-alicyclic amino-methylene bisphosphonates, such as incadronate (N-cycloheptyl aminomethylene bisphosphonate), as well as aliphatic aminomethylene bisphosphonates containing short (n = 4, 5) alkyl chains, were also active, with 1C50 values in the 200-1700 nM range (corresponding to Ki values of ∼20-170 nM). Bisphosphonates containing longer or multiple (N,N-) alkyl substitutions were inactive, as were aromatic species lacking an o- or m-nitrogen atom in the ring, or possessing multiple halogen substitutions or a p-amino group. To put these observations on a more quantitative structural basis, we used three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship techniques: comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity index analysis (CoMSIA), to investigate which structural features correlated with high activity. Training set results (N = 62 compounds) yielded good correlations with each technique (R2 = 0.87 and 0.88, respectively), and were further validated by using a training/test set approach. Test set results (N = 24 compounds) indicated that IC50 values could be predicted within factors of 2.9 and 2.7 for the CoMFA and CoMSIA methods, respectively. The CoMSIA fields indicated that a positive charge in the bisphosphonate side chain and a hydrophobic feature contributed significantly to activity. Overall, these results are of general interest since they represent the first detailed quantitative structure-activity relationship study of the inhibition of an expressed farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase enzyme by bisphosphonate inhibitors and that the activity of these inhibitors can be predicted within about a factor of 3 by using 3D-QSAR techniques.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5171-5183
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Medicinal Chemistry
Volume46
Issue number24
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 20 2003

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Drug Discovery

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