2.9 K VCSEL demonstrates 100 Gbps PAM-4 optical data transmission

Haonan Wu, Wenning Fu, Dufei Wu, Milton Feng

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


A cryogenic packaged vertical-cavity-surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) with microwave input and coupled with OM4 fiber for optical output was developed and demonstrated laser operation from 295 to 2.9 K. Record 2.9 K optical data links of 100 Gbps pulsed amplitude modulation 4-level have been demonstrated with an energy per bit ∼153.4 fJ/bit when TDECQ = 3.79 dB. The energy/bit is limited by the link path bandwidth resulted from the input cable loss to 2.9 K VCSEL and can be further improved. Thus, the VCSEL optical data link is proven to be a viable solution for cryogenic communication and computing.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number011102
JournalApplied Physics Letters
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jul 4 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)


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