BACKGROUND: Few therapies prevent venous neointimal hyperplasia (VNH) and venous stenosis (VS) formation in arteriovenous fistulas (AVF). Expression of the immediate early response gene X-1 (Iex-1), also known as Ier3, is associated with VNH and stenosis in murine AVFs. The study aimed to determine if local release of Ier3 long-acting inhibitor 1α,25(OH)2D3 from poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles embedded in a thermosensitive Pluronic F127 hydrogel (1,25 NP) could affect VNH/VS formation in a large animal model.
METHODS: Immediately after AVF creation in a porcine model of renal failure, 1,25 NP or vehicle control was injected into the adventitia space of AVF outflow veins. Scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering characterized drug and control nanoparticles. Animals were sacrificed 3 and 28 days later for gene expression, immunohistologic, magnetic resonance imaging and angiography, and ultrasound analyses. Whole transcriptome RNA sequencing with differential gene expression analysis was performed on outflow veins of AVF.
RESULTS: Encapsulation of 1α,25(OH)2D3 in PLGA nanoparticles formed nanoparticles of uniform size that were similar to nanoparticles without 1α,25(OH)2D3. The 1,25 NP-treated AVFs exhibited lower VNH/VS, Ier3 gene expression, and IER-3, MCP-1, CD68, HIF-1α, and VEGF-A immunostaining, fibrosis, and proliferation. Blood flow and lumen area increased significantly, whereas peak systolic velocity and wall shear stress decreased. Treatment increased Young's modulus and correlated with histologic assessment of fibrosis and with no evidence of vascular calcification. RNA sequencing analysis showed changes in the expression of genes associated with inflammatory, TGFβ1, and apoptotic pathways.
CONCLUSIONS: Local release of 1,25 NP improves AVF flow and hemodynamics, and reduces stenosis in association with reduction in inflammation, apoptosis, and fibrosis in a porcine model of arteriovenous fistula.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Journal||Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN|
|State||E-pub ahead of print - Feb 24 2021|
- arteriovenous fistula
- drug delivery
- shear stress
- vascular access