William H Sanders

Interim Director, Discovery Partners Institute

1985 …2019
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Research Output 1985 2019

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Conference contribution
2013

Toward a cyber-physical topology language: Applications to NERC CIP audit

Weaver, G. A., Cheh, C., Rogers, E. J., Sanders, W. H. & Gammel, D., Dec 9 2013, SEGS 2013 - Proceedings of the 2013 ACM Workshop on Smart Energy Grid Security, Co-located with CCS 2013. p. 93-104 12 p. (Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Critical infrastructures
Topology
Industry
Graph theory
Outages
2012

A framework for efficient evaluation of the fault tolerance of deduplicated storage systems

Rozier, E. W. D. & Sanders, W. H., Oct 1 2012, 2012 42nd Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks, DSN 2012. 6263921. (Proceedings of the International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Fault tolerance
Discrete event simulation
Specifications

A mirrored data structures approach to diverse partial memory replication

Lefever, R. M., Adve, V. S. & Sanders, W. H., Jul 30 2012, Proceedings - 9th European Dependable Computing Conference, EDCC 2012. p. 61-72 12 p. 6214761. (Proceedings - 9th European Dependable Computing Conference, EDCC 2012).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Data structures
Data storage equipment
Storage allocation (computer)

AMI threats, intrusion detection requirements and deployment recommendations

Grochocki, D., Huh, J. H., Berthier, R., Bobba, R., Sanders, W. H., Cardenas, A. A. & Jetcheva, J. G., Dec 1 2012, 2012 IEEE 3rd International Conference on Smart Grid Communications, SmartGridComm 2012. p. 395-400 6 p. 6486016. (2012 IEEE 3rd International Conference on Smart Grid Communications, SmartGridComm 2012).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Advanced metering infrastructures
Smart meters
Intrusion detection
threat
infrastructure

A project to develop a trustworthy cyber infrastructure for the power grid (TCIPG)

Sauer, P. W. & Sanders, W. H., Dec 11 2012, 2012 IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting, PES 2012. 6345765. (IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Education
Engineers
Industry

Cost modeling of response actions for automated response and recovery in AMI

Fawaz, A., Berthier, R. & Sanders, W. H., Dec 1 2012, 2012 IEEE 3rd International Conference on Smart Grid Communications, SmartGridComm 2012. p. 348-353 6 p. 6486008. (2012 IEEE 3rd International Conference on Smart Grid Communications, SmartGridComm 2012).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Advanced metering infrastructures
incident
infrastructure
Recovery
costs

Failure scenario as a service (FSaaS) for Hadoop clusters

Faghri, F., Bazarbayev, S., Overholt, M., Farivar, R., Campbell, R. H. & Sanders, W. H., Dec 31 2012, Proceedings of the Workshop on Secure and Dependable Middleware for Cloud Monitoring and Management, SDMCMM 2012. (Proceedings of the Workshop on Secure and Dependable Middleware for Cloud Monitoring and Management, SDMCMM 2012).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Cloud computing
Testing
Industry

Safeguarding academic accounts and resources with the University Credential Abuse Auditing System

Zhang, J., Berthier, R., Rhee, W., Bailey, M., Pal, P., Jahanian, F. & Sanders, W. H., Oct 1 2012, 2012 42nd Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks, DSN 2012. 6263961. (Proceedings of the International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Malware

State-based analysis in ADVISE

Ford, M. D., Buchholz, P. & Sanders, W. H., 2012, Proceedings - 2012 9th International Conference on Quantitative Evaluation of Systems, QEST 2012. p. 148-157 10 p. 6354643

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Markov processes
Decision making

TCIPG: Trustworthy cyber infrastructure for the power grid overview

Sanders, W. H., May 16 2012, 2012 IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies, ISGT 2012. 6175818. (2012 IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies, ISGT 2012).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

National security
Disasters
Telecommunication networks
Health
Denial-of-service attack

Workshop on open resilient human-aware cyber-physical systems

Kaaniche, M., Harrison, M., Kopetz, H., Siewiorek, D., Arlat, J., Bakken, D., Blough, D., Buss, M., Cao, J., Chen, Y. K., Deconinck, G., Jahanian, F., Gleizes, M. P., Iwano, K., Haddadi, H., Helal, S., Lee, I., Liu, J., Marzullo, K., Maxion, R. & 7 others, Obermaisser, R., Paulitsch, M., Powell, D., Roudier, Y., Rufino, J., Sanders, W. H. & Xia, F., Dec 1 2012, 2012 IEEE/IFIP 42nd International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks Workshops, DSN-W 2012. 6264650. (Proceedings of the International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Cyber Physical System
2011

FloGuard: Cost-aware systemwide intrusion defense via online forensics and on-demand IDS deployment

Zonouz, S. A., Joshi, K. R. & Sanders, W. H., Sep 26 2011, Computer Safety, Reliability, and Security - 30th International Conference, SAFECOMP 2011, Proceedings. p. 338-354 17 p. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics); vol. 6894 LNCS).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Vulnerability
Detector
Detectors
Attack
Costs

Managing business health in the presence of malicious attacks

Zonouz, S. A., Sharma, A., Ramasamy, H. V., Kalbarczyk, Z. T., Pfitzmann, B., McAuliffe, K., Iyer, R. K., Sanders, W. H. & Cope, E., Sep 2 2011, 2011 IEEE/IFIP 41st International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks Workshops, DSN-W 2011. p. 9-14 6 p. 5958856. (Proceedings of the International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Health
Industry
Information technology
Recovery
Costs

Model-based security metrics using ADversary VIew Security Evaluation (ADVISE)

LeMay, E., Ford, M. D., Keefe, K., Sanders, W. H. & Muehrcke, C., Nov 2 2011, Proceedings of the 2011 8th International Conference on Quantitative Evaluation of Systems, QEST 2011. p. 191-200 10 p. 6042046. (Proceedings of the 2011 8th International Conference on Quantitative Evaluation of Systems, QEST 2011).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Information use
Security systems

Modeling the fault tolerance consequences of deduplication

Rozier, E. W. D., Sanders, W. H., Zhou, P., Mandagere, N., Uttamchandani, S. M. & Yakushev, M. L., Dec 14 2011, Proceedings - 2011 30th IEEE International Symposium on Reliable Distributed Systems, SRDS 2011. p. 75-84 10 p. 6076764. (Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium on Reliable Distributed Systems).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Fault tolerance
Fault Tolerance
Modeling
Storage System
Hardware

Specification-based intrusion detection for advanced metering infrastructures

Berthier, R. & Sanders, W. H., Dec 1 2011, Proceedings - 2011 17th IEEE Pacific Rim International Symposium on Dependable Computing, PRDC 2011. p. 184-193 10 p. 6133080. (Proceedings of IEEE Pacific Rim International Symposium on Dependable Computing, PRDC).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Advanced metering infrastructures
Intrusion detection
Specifications
Sensors
Smart meters

The multiple-asymmetric-utility system model: A framework for modeling cyber-human systems

Eskins, D. & Sanders, W. H., Nov 2 2011, Proceedings of the 2011 8th International Conference on Quantitative Evaluation of Systems, QEST 2011. p. 233-242 10 p. 6042050. (Proceedings of the 2011 8th International Conference on Quantitative Evaluation of Systems, QEST 2011).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Security systems
Ontology
2010

Adversary-driven state-based system security evaluation

LeMay, E., Unkenholz, W., Parks, D., Muehrcke, C., Keefe, K. & Sanders, W. H., Dec 1 2010, 6th International Workshop on Security Measurements and Metrics, MetriSec 2010. 1853926. (6th International Workshop on Security Measurements and Metrics, MetriSec 2010).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Security systems

Cost-aware systemwide intrusion defense via online forensics and on-demand detector deployment

Zonouz, S. A., Joshi, K. R. & Sanders, W. H., Dec 20 2010, Proceedings of the 3rd ACM Workshop on Assurable and Usable Security Configuration, SafeConfig '10, Co-located with CCS'10. p. 71-74 4 p. 1866910. (Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Intrusion detection
Detectors
Costs
Online systems
Botnet

CPU gadients: Performance-aware energy conservation in multitier systems

Chen, S., Joshi, K. R., Hiltunen, M. A., Schlichting, R. D. & Sanders, W. H., Nov 24 2010, 2010 International Conference on Green Computing, Green Comp 2010. p. 15-29 15 p. 5598296. (2010 International Conference on Green Computing, Green Comp 2010).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Program processors
Energy conservation
Computer systems
Response time (computer systems)
Consolidation

Diverse partial memory replication

Lefever, R. M., Adve, V. S. & Sanders, W. H., Sep 20 2010, Proceedings of the 2010 IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks, DSN 2010. p. 71-80 10 p. 5545012. (Proceedings of the International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Data storage equipment

Diversity-inspired clustering for self-healing MANETs: Motivation, protocol, and performability evaluation

Tai, A. T., Tso, K. S. & Sanders, W. H., Sep 20 2010, Proceedings of the 2010 IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks, DSN 2010. p. 547-556 10 p. 5544269. (Proceedings of the International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Redundancy
Law enforcement
Clustering algorithms

Experiences validating the access policy tool in industrial settings

Nicol, D. M., Sanders, W. H., Seri, M. & Singh, S., May 7 2010, Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, HICSS-43. 5428369. (Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Industry
Compliance

Progress towards a resilient power grid infrastructure

Sanders, W. H., Dec 6 2010, IEEE PES General Meeting, PES 2010. 5589686. (IEEE PES General Meeting, PES 2010).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Students
Authentication
Power generation
Education
Availability
2009

G-SSASC: Simultaneous simulation of system models with bounded hazard rates

Gaonkar, S. & Sanders, W. H., Dec 1 2009, Proceedings of the 2009 Winter Simulation Conference, WSC 2009. p. 663-673 11 p. 5429702. (Proceedings - Winter Simulation Conference).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Hazard Rate
Hazards
Configuration
Alternatives
Simulation

Link gradients: Predicting the impact of network latency on multitier applications

Chen, S., Joshi, K. R., Hiltunen, M. A., Sanders, W. H. & Schlichting, R. D., Oct 12 2009, IEEE INFOCOM 2009 - The 28th Conference on Computer Communications. p. 2258-2266 9 p. 5062151. (Proceedings - IEEE INFOCOM).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Spectrum analysis
Industry

Möbius 2.3: An extensible tool for dependability, security, and performance evaluation of large and complex system models

Courtney, T., Gaonkar, S., Keefe, K., Rozier, E. W. D. & Sanders, W. H., Nov 25 2009, Proceedings of the 2009 IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks, DSN 2009. p. 353-358 6 p. 5270318. (Proceedings of the International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Discrete event simulation
Large scale systems

Remote job management in the Möbius modeling framework

Keefe, K., Mitchell, Q., Rozier, E. & Sanders, W. H., Dec 1 2009, QEST - 6th International Conference on the Quantitative Evaluation of Systems. p. 209-210 2 p. 5290837

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Servers
Parameterization
Topology

RRE: A game-theoretic intrusion response and recovery engine

Zonouz, S. A., Khurana, H., Sanders, W. H. & Yardley, T. M., Nov 25 2009, Proceedings of the 2009 IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks, DSN 2009. p. 439-448 10 p. 5270307. (Proceedings of the International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Engines
Recovery
Intrusion detection
Availability
2008

A Kalman-based coordination for hierarchical state estimation: Algorithm and analysis

Zonouz, S. A. & Sanders, W. H., Sep 16 2008, Proceedings of the 41st Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences 2008, HICSS. 4438891. (Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

State estimation
Communication
Bandwidth
Electric power system interconnection

Modeling peer-to-peer botnets

Van Ruitenbeek, E. & Sanders, W. H., Nov 28 2008, Proceedings - 5th International Conference on the Quantitative Evaluation of Systems, QEST 2008. p. 307-316 10 p. 4634985. (Proceedings - 5th International Conference on the Quantitative Evaluation of Systems, QEST 2008).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Computer simulation
Stochastic models
Computer worms
Internet
Botnet

Securing current and future process control systems

Cunningham, R., Cheung, S., Fong, M., Lindqvist, U., Nicol, D., Pawlowski, R., Robinson, E., Sanders, W., Singh, S., Valdes, A., Woodworth, B. & Zhivich, M., Jan 1 2008, Critical Infrastructure Protection. Springer New York LLC, p. 99-115 17 p. (IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology; vol. 253).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Process control
Control systems
Information technology
Critical infrastructures
Software testing
2007

Brief announcement: The coBFIT toolkit

Ramasamy, H. G., Seri, M. & Sanders, W. H., Dec 14 2007, PODC'07: Proceedings of the 26th Annual ACM Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing. p. 350-351 2 p. (Proceedings of the Annual ACM Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Dependability analysis with Markov Chains: How symmetries improve symbolic computations

McQuinn, M. G., Kemper, P. & Sanders, W. H., Dec 1 2007, Proceedings - 4th International Conference on the Quantitative Evaluation of Systems, QEST 2007. p. 151-160 10 p. 4338250. (Proceedings - 4th International Conference on the Quantitative Evaluation of Systems, QEST 2007).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Dependability
Symbolic Computation
Markov processes
Markov chain
Symmetry

Design of experiments within the Möbius modeling environment

Courtney, T., Gaonkar, S., McQuinn, M. G., Rozier, E., Sanders, W. H. & Webster, P., Dec 1 2007, Proceedings - 4th International Conference on the Quantitative Evaluation of Systems, QEST 2007. p. 161-162 2 p. 4338251. (Proceedings - 4th International Conference on the Quantitative Evaluation of Systems, QEST 2007).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Design of Experiments
Design of experiments
Modeling
Large scale systems
Output

Modeling and analysis of worm defense using stochastic activity networks

Nicol, D. M., Hanna, S., Stratton, F. & Sanders, W. H., Mar 25 2007, Business and Industry Symposium, BIS 2007 - Proceedings of the 2007 Spring Simulation Multiconference, SpringSim 2007. Association for Computing Machinery, Inc, p. 349-355 7 p. (Business and Industry Symposium, BIS 2007 - Proceedings of the 2007 Spring Simulation Multiconference, SpringSim 2007).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Worm
Infection
Modeling
Local area networks
Large scale systems

Quantifying the effectiveness of mobile phone virus response mechanisms

Van Ruitenbeek, E., Courtney, T., Sanders, W. H. & Stevens, F., Nov 16 2007, Proceedings - 37th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks, DSN 2007. p. 790-799 10 p. 4273030. (Proceedings of the International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Mobile phones
Computer viruses
Smartphones

Securing current and future process control systems

Cunningham, R., Cheung, S., Fong, M., Lindqvist, U., Nicol, D., Pawlowski, R., Robinson, E., Sanders, W., Singh, S., Valdes, A., Woodworth, B. & Zhivich, M., Nov 22 2007, Critical Infrastructure Protection. Goetz, E. & Shenoi, S. (eds.). p. 99-115 17 p. (IFIP International Federation for Information Processing; vol. 253).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Systems software
Policy implementation
Testing
Shipping
Vulnerability
2006

A behavior-based process for evaluating availability achievement risk using stochastic activity networks

Beaudet, S. T., Courtney, T. & Sanders, W. H., Dec 1 2006, Annual Reliability and Maintainability Symposium, RAMS'06 - 2006 Proceedings. p. 21-28 8 p. 1677344. (Proceedings - Annual Reliability and Maintainability Symposium).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Availability
Engineers
Logistics
Large scale systems

A component-level path composition approach for efficient transient analysis of large CTMCs

Lam, V. V., Buchholz, P. & Sanders, W. H., Dec 22 2006, Proceedings - DSN 2006: 2006 International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks. p. 485-494 10 p. 1633537. (Proceedings of the International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks; vol. 2006).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Transient analysis
Chemical analysis
Information services
Computational complexity
Availability

Automatic recovery using bounded partially observable Markov decision processes

Joshi, K. R., Hiltunen, M. A., Sanders, W. H. & Schlichting, R. D., Dec 22 2006, Proceedings - DSN 2006: 2006 International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks. p. 445-454 10 p. 1633533. (Proceedings of the International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks; vol. 2006).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Recovery
Controllers
Costs

Barbarians in the gate: An experimental validation of NIC-based distributed firewall performance and flood tolerance

Ihde, M. & Sanders, W. H., Dec 22 2006, Proceedings - DSN 2006: 2006 International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks. p. 209-214 6 p. 1633510. (Proceedings of the International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks; vol. 2006).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Interfaces (computer)
Network security
Bandwidth
Experiments

Bound-preserving composition for Markov reward models

Daly, D., Buchholz, P. & Sanders, W. H., Dec 1 2006, Third International Conference on the Quantitative Evaluation of Systems, QEST 2006. p. 243-252 10 p. 1704018. (Third International Conference on the Quantitative Evaluation of Systems, QEST 2006).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Reward
Chemical analysis
Stochastic Order
Model
Aggregation

Data analysis and visualization within the Möbius modeling environment

Courtney, T., Gaonkar, S., Griffith, M., Lam, V., McQuinn, M., Rozier, E. & Sanders, W. H., Dec 1 2006, Third International Conference on the Quantitative Evaluation of Systems, QEST 2006. p. 137-138 2 p. 1704006. (Third International Conference on the Quantitative Evaluation of Systems, QEST 2006).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Data visualization
Data Visualization
Discrete event simulation
Data analysis
Visualization

Designing dependable storage solutions for shared application environments

Gaonkar, S., Keeton, K., Merchant, A. & Sanders, W. H., Dec 22 2006, Proceedings - DSN 2006: 2006 International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks. p. 371-380 10 p. 1633526. (Proceedings of the International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks; vol. 2006).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Data privacy
Costs
Recovery
Industry

Detecting and exploiting symmetry in discrete-state Markov models

Obal, W. D., McQuinn, M. G. & Sanders, W. H., Dec 1 2006, Proceedings - 12th Pacific Rim International Symposium on Dependable Computing, PRDC 2006. p. 26-35 10 p. 4041885. (Proceedings - 12th Pacific Rim International Symposium on Dependable Computing, PRDC 2006).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Group theory
Graph theory
Specifications

Efficient state management to speed up simultaneous simulation of alternate system configurations

Gaonkar, S., Courtney, T. & Sanders, W. H., Dec 1 2006, International Mediterranean Modelling Multiconference, IMM. p. 31-36 6 p. (International Mediterranean Modelling Multiconference, I3M).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Alternate
Speedup
Configuration
Simulation
Alternatives

Proactive resilience revisited: The delicate balance between resisting intrusions and remaining available

Sousa, P., Neves, N. F., Veríssimo, P. & Sanders, W. H., Dec 1 2006, Proceedings - 25th IEEE Symposium on Reliable Distributed Systems, SRDS 2006. p. 71-80 10 p. 4032470. (Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium on Reliable Distributed Systems).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Resilience
Recovery
Fault
Asynchronous Systems
Lifetime
2005

A compiler-enabled model- And measurement-driven adaptation environment for dependability and performance

Adve, V. S., Agbaria, A., Hiltunen, M. A., Iyer, R. K., Joshi, K. R., Kalbarczyk, Z., Lefever, R. M., Plante, R., Sanders, W. H. & Schlichting, R. D., Dec 1 2005, Proceedings - 19th IEEE International Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium, IPDPS 2005. 1420134. (Proceedings - 19th IEEE International Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium, IPDPS 2005; vol. 2005).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Costs
Error detection

A component-level path-based simulation approach for efficient analysis of large Markov models

Lam, V. V., Buchholz, P. & Sanders, W. H., Dec 1 2005, Proceedings of the 2005 Winter Simulation Conference. p. 584-590 7 p. 1574298. (Proceedings - Winter Simulation Conference; vol. 2005).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Markov Model
Path
Trajectories
Simulation
Discrete event simulation