Rayadurgam Srikant

1988 …2019
If you made any changes in Pure, your changes will be visible here soon.

Research Output 1988 2019

Filter
Conference contribution
2019

Convergence Rate of Distributed Consensus with Nonuniform Delays

Doan, T. T., Beck, C. L. & Srikant, R., Feb 19 2019, Conference Record of the 52nd Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems and Computers, ACSSC 2018. Matthews, M. B. (ed.). IEEE Computer Society, p. 1294-1298 5 p. 8645450. (Conference Record - Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems and Computers; vol. 2018-October).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Topology
Communication
Computer simulation

Learning to control renewal processes with bandit feedback

Cayci, S., Eryilmaz, A. & Srikant, R., Jun 20 2019, SIGMETRICS Performance 2019 - Abstracts of the 2019 SIGMETRICS/Performance Joint International Conference on Measurement and Modeling of Computer Systems. Association for Computing Machinery, Inc, p. 41-42 2 p. (SIGMETRICS Performance 2019 - Abstracts of the 2019 SIGMETRICS/Performance Joint International Conference on Measurement and Modeling of Computer Systems).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Open Access
Feedback
Controllers
Learning algorithms
Statistics

Link Rate Selection using Constrained Thompson Sampling

Gupta, H., Eryilmaz, A. & Srikant, R., Apr 2019, INFOCOM 2019 - IEEE Conference on Computer Communications. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., p. 739-747 9 p. 8737610. (Proceedings - IEEE INFOCOM; vol. 2019-April).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Sampling
Telecommunication links
Statistics
Channel state information
Learning algorithms

Optimal Search Segmentation Mechanisms for Online Platform Markets

Zheng, Z. & Srikant, R., Jan 1 2019, Web and Internet Economics - 15th International Conference, WINE 2019, Proceedings. Caragiannis, I., Mirrokni, V. & Nikolova, E. (eds.). Springer, p. 301-315 15 p. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics); vol. 11920 LNCS).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Segmentation
Optimal Strategy
Hotels
Maximise
Multinomial Logit Model
2018

Convergence Rate of Distributed Subgradient Methods under Communication Delays

Doan, T. T., Beck, C. L. & Srikant, R., Aug 9 2018, 2018 Annual American Control Conference, ACC 2018. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., p. 5310-5315 6 p. 8431382. (Proceedings of the American Control Conference; vol. 2018-June).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Communication
Parallel algorithms
Computer science
Topology

Correcting the Output of Approximate Graph Matching Algorithms

Lubars, J. & Srikant, R., Oct 8 2018, INFOCOM 2018 - IEEE Conference on Computer Communications. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., p. 1745-1753 9 p. 8486238. (Proceedings - IEEE INFOCOM; vol. 2018-April).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Seed
Labels
Processing

Low-Complexity, Low-Regret Link Rate Selection in Rapidly-Varying Wireless Channels

Gupta, H., Eryilmaz, A. & Srikant, R., Oct 8 2018, INFOCOM 2018 - IEEE Conference on Computer Communications. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., p. 540-548 9 p. 8486206. (Proceedings - IEEE INFOCOM; vol. 2018-April).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Telecommunication links
Sampling
State feedback
Probability distributions
Wireless networks

On the convergence rate of distributed gradient methods for finite-sum optimization under communication delays

Doan, T. T., Beck, C. L. & Srikant, R., Jun 12 2018, SIGMETRICS 2018 - Abstracts of the 2018 ACM International Conference on Measurement and Modeling of Computer Systems. Association for Computing Machinery, Inc, p. 93-95 3 p. (SIGMETRICS 2018 - Abstracts of the 2018 ACM International Conference on Measurement and Modeling of Computer Systems).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Gradient methods
Communication
Parallel algorithms
Learning systems
Topology

Pricing for Revenue Maximization in Inter-DataCenter Networks

Zheng, Z., Srikant, R. & Chen, G., Oct 8 2018, INFOCOM 2018 - IEEE Conference on Computer Communications. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., p. 28-36 9 p. 8486311. (Proceedings - IEEE INFOCOM; vol. 2018-April).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Costs
Data transfer
Dynamic programming
Resource allocation
Computational complexity

Understanding the loss surface of neural networks for binary classification

Liang, S., Sun, R., Li, Y. & Srikant, R., Jan 1 2018, 35th International Conference on Machine Learning, ICML 2018. Dy, J. & Krause, A. (eds.). International Machine Learning Society (IMLS), p. 4420-4429 10 p. (35th International Conference on Machine Learning, ICML 2018; vol. 6).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Neural networks
Hinges
Neurons

Wireless scheduling with deadline and power constraints

Liu, Y., Liu, X., Ying, L. & Srikant, R., May 21 2018, 2018 52nd Annual Conference on Information Sciences and Systems, CISS 2018. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., p. 1-6 6 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Scheduling
Throughput
Power control
Transmitters
Computational complexity
2017

Emulating round-robin in wireless networks

Li, B., Eryilmaz, A. & Srikant, R., Jul 10 2017, MobiHoc 2017 - Proceedings of the 18th ACM International Symposium on Mobile Ad Hoc Networking and Computing. Association for Computing Machinery, a21. (Proceedings of the International Symposium on Mobile Ad Hoc Networking and Computing (MobiHoc); vol. Part F129153).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Wireless networks
Scheduling
Throughput
Fading channels
Servers

Structure identification in layered precedence networks

Kong, S. T., Katselis, D., Beck, C. L. & Srikant, R., Oct 6 2017, 1st Annual IEEE Conference on Control Technology and Applications, CCTA 2017. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., p. 1177-1182 6 p. (1st Annual IEEE Conference on Control Technology and Applications, CCTA 2017; vol. 2017-January).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Structure Identification
Precedence Constraints
Vertex of a graph
Graph in graph theory
Network Structure
2016

Controlled link shedding for maximizing supportable demand of a disrupted power network

Kesavareddigari, H., Eryilmaz, A. & Srikant, R., Dec 27 2016, 2016 IEEE 55th Conference on Decision and Control, CDC 2016. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., p. 6972-6977 6 p. 7799343. (2016 IEEE 55th Conference on Decision and Control, CDC 2016).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Linear networks
Cascading Failure
Simulated annealing
Paradox
Stabilization

Maximum likelihood rumor source detection in a star network

Spencer, S. & Srikant, R., May 18 2016, 2016 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, ICASSP 2016 - Proceedings. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., p. 2199-2203 5 p. 7472067. (ICASSP, IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing - Proceedings; vol. 2016-May).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Maximum likelihood
Stars
Identification (control systems)

Mean-field-analysis of coding versus replication in cloud storage systems

Li, B., Ramamoorthy, A. & Srikant, R., Jul 27 2016, IEEE INFOCOM 2016 - 35th Annual IEEE International Conference on Computer Communications. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 7524626. (Proceedings - IEEE INFOCOM; vol. 2016-July).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Servers
Telecommunication traffic
Resource allocation
Redundancy
Recovery

On projected stochastic gradient descent algorithm with weighted averaging for least squares regression

Cohen, K., Nedich, A. & Srikant, R., May 18 2016, 2016 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, ICASSP 2016 - Proceedings. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., p. 2314-2318 5 p. 7472090. (ICASSP, IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing - Proceedings; vol. 2016-May).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Additive noise

Optimal distributed scheduling of real-time traffic with hard deadlines

Lu, N., Li, B., Srikant, R. & Ying, L., Dec 27 2016, 2016 IEEE 55th Conference on Decision and Control, CDC 2016. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., p. 4408-4413 6 p. 7798938. (2016 IEEE 55th Conference on Decision and Control, CDC 2016).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Distributed Scheduling
Optimal Scheduling
Deadline
Scheduling
Traffic

Optimal Heavy-Traffic Queue Length Scaling in an Incompletely Saturated Switch

Maguluri, S. T., Burle, S. K. & Srikant, R., Jun 14 2016, SIGMETRICS/ Performance 2016 - Proceedings of the SIGMETRICS/Performance Joint International Conference on Measurement and Modeling of Computer Science. Association for Computing Machinery, Inc, p. 13-14 2 p. (SIGMETRICS/ Performance 2016 - Proceedings of the SIGMETRICS/Performance Joint International Conference on Measurement and Modeling of Computer Science).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Scheduling algorithms
Switches
Routers
Internet
2015

Distributed learning algorithms for spectrum sharing in spatial random access networks

Cohen, K., Nedich, A. & Srikant, R., Jul 6 2015, 2015 13th International Symposium on Modeling and Optimization in Mobile, Ad Hoc, and Wireless Networks, WiOpt 2015. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., p. 513-520 8 p. 7151113. (2015 13th International Symposium on Modeling and Optimization in Mobile, Ad Hoc, and Wireless Networks, WiOpt 2015).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Spectrum Sharing
Random Access
Distributed Algorithms
Parallel algorithms
Learning algorithms

Exploiting large system dynamics for designing simple data center schedulers

Zheng, Y., Shroff, N. B., Srikant, R. & Sinha, P., Aug 21 2015, 2015 IEEE Conference on Computer Communications, IEEE INFOCOM 2015. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., p. 397-405 9 p. 7218405. (Proceedings - IEEE INFOCOM; vol. 26).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Dynamical systems
Scheduling
Processing

On the universality of age-based scheduling in wireless networks

Li, B., Eryilmaz, A. & Srikant, R., Aug 21 2015, 2015 IEEE Conference on Computer Communications, IEEE INFOCOM 2015. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., p. 1302-1310 9 p. 7218506. (Proceedings - IEEE INFOCOM; vol. 26).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Wireless networks
Scheduling
Throughput
Carrier sense multiple access
Lyapunov functions

The power of slightly more than one sample in randomized load balancing

Ying, L., Srikant, R. & Kang, X., Aug 21 2015, 2015 IEEE Conference on Computer Communications, IEEE INFOCOM 2015. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., p. 1131-1139 9 p. 7218487. (Proceedings - IEEE INFOCOM; vol. 26).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Resource allocation
Servers
Routing algorithms
Cloud computing
Sampling
2014

EasyBid: Enabling cellular offloading via small players

Lu, Z., Sinha, P. & Srikant, R., Jan 1 2014, IEEE INFOCOM 2014 - IEEE Conference on Computer Communications. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., p. 691-699 9 p. 6847995. (Proceedings - IEEE INFOCOM).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Femtocell
Dynamic programming
Machinery
Costs
Industry

Jointly clustering rows and columns of binary matrices: Algorithms and trade-offs

Xu, J., Wu, R., Zhu, K., Hajek, B., Srikant, R. & Ying, L., Jan 1 2014, SIGMETRICS 2014 - Proceedings of the 2014 ACM SIGMETRICS International Conference on Measurement and Modeling of Computer Systems. Association for Computing Machinery, p. 29-41 13 p. (SIGMETRICS 2014 - Proceedings of the 2014 ACM SIGMETRICS International Conference on Measurement and Modeling of Computer Systems).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Trade-offs
Clustering
Binary
Recovery
Computational complexity

LP-relaxation based distributed algorithms for scheduling in wireless networks

Singh, C., Nedić, A. & Srikant, R., Jan 1 2014, IEEE INFOCOM 2014 - IEEE Conference on Computer Communications. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., p. 1905-1913 9 p. 6848130. (Proceedings - IEEE INFOCOM).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Parallel algorithms
Wireless networks
Scheduling
Carrier sense multiple access
Telecommunication links
2013

Bandits with budgets

Jiang, C. & Srikant, R., Jan 1 2013, 2013 IEEE 52nd Annual Conference on Decision and Control, CDC 2013. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., p. 5345-5350 6 p. 6760730. (Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Decision and Control).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Bandit Problems
Marketing
Multi-armed Bandit
Confidence Bounds
Regret

Improved upper bounds on the expected error in constant step-size Q-learning

Beck, C. L. & Srikant, R., 2013, 2013 American Control Conference, ACC 2013. p. 1926-1931 6 p. 6580117

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Error analysis
Learning algorithms
Sampling

On optimal routing in overloaded parallel queues

Li, B., Eryilmaz, A., Srikant, R. & Tassiulas, L., Jan 1 2013, 2013 IEEE 52nd Annual Conference on Decision and Control, CDC 2013. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., p. 262-267 6 p. 6759892. (Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Decision and Control).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Parallel Queues
Routing
Servers
Queue
Queue Length

Opinion dynamics in social networks: A local interaction game with stubborn agents

Ghaderi, J. & Srikant, R., Sep 11 2013, 2013 American Control Conference, ACC 2013. p. 1982-1987 6 p. 6580126. (Proceedings of the American Control Conference).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Costs
Innovation

Scheduling jobs with unknown duration in clouds

Maguluri, S. T. & Srikant, R., Sep 2 2013, 2013 Proceedings IEEE INFOCOM 2013. p. 1887-1895 9 p. 6566988. (Proceedings - IEEE INFOCOM).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Servers
Scheduling
Stochastic models
Scheduling algorithms
Random variables
2012

Connection-level scheduling in wireless networks using only MAC-layer information

Ghaderi, J., Ji, T. & Srikant, R., Jun 4 2012, 2012 Proceedings IEEE INFOCOM, INFOCOM 2012. p. 2696-2700 5 p. 6195681. (Proceedings - IEEE INFOCOM).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Wireless networks
Scheduling
Throughput

Effect of access probabilities on the delay performance of Q-CSMA algorithms

Ghaderi, J. & Srikant, R., Jun 4 2012, 2012 Proceedings IEEE INFOCOM, INFOCOM 2012. p. 2068-2076 9 p. 6195588. (Proceedings - IEEE INFOCOM).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Carrier sense multiple access
Markov processes
Wireless networks
Throughput

Flow-level stability of multihop wireless networks using only MAC-layer information

Ghaderi, J. & Srikant, R., Oct 5 2012, 2012 10th International Symposium on Modeling and Optimization in Mobile, Ad Hoc and Wireless Networks, WiOpt 2012. p. 9-14 6 p. 6260509. (2012 10th International Symposium on Modeling and Optimization in Mobile, Ad Hoc and Wireless Networks, WiOpt 2012).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Multi-hop Wireless Networks
Congestion Control
Wireless networks
Carrier sense multiple access
Scheduling

Heavy traffic optimal resource allocation algorithms for cloud computing clusters

Maguluri, S. T., Srikant, R. & Ying, L., Nov 26 2012, Final Program - 2012 24th International Teletraffic Congress, ITC 24. p. 65-72 8 p. 6331819. (Final Program - 2012 24th International Teletraffic Congress, ITC 24).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Cloud computing
Resource allocation
Personal computing
Mobile computing
Stochastic models

Learning graph structures in discrete Markov random fields

Wu, R., Srikant, R. & Ni, J., May 24 2012, 2012 IEEE Conference on Computer Communications Workshops, INFOCOM WKSHPS 2012. p. 214-219 6 p. 6193494. (Proceedings - IEEE INFOCOM).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Computational complexity
Ising model

Peer-to-peer streaming over dynamic random Hamilton cycles

Kim, J. & Srikant, R., May 7 2012, 2012 Information Theory and Applications Workshop, ITA 2012 - Conference Proceedings. p. 415-419 5 p. 6181767. (2012 Information Theory and Applications Workshop, ITA 2012 - Conference Proceedings).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Trees (mathematics)
Parallel algorithms
Throughput
Topology

Stochastic models of load balancing and scheduling in cloud computing clusters

Maguluri, S. T., Srikant, R. & Ying, L., Jun 4 2012, 2012 Proceedings IEEE INFOCOM, INFOCOM 2012. p. 702-710 9 p. 6195815. (Proceedings - IEEE INFOCOM).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Stochastic models
Cloud computing
Resource allocation
Scheduling
Personal computing
2011

Achieving the maximum P2P streaming rate using a small number of trees

Kim, J. & Srikant, R., Sep 26 2011, 2011 20th International Conference on Computer Communications and Networks, ICCCN 2011 - Proceedings. 6005902. (Proceedings - International Conference on Computer Communications and Networks, ICCCN).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Peer to peer networks
Bins
Servers
Bandwidth

Fast mixing of parallel Glauber dynamics and low-delay CSMA scheduling

Jiang, L., Leconte, M., Ni, J., Srikant, R. & Walrand, J., Aug 2 2011, 2011 Proceedings IEEE INFOCOM. p. 371-375 5 p. 5935185. (Proceedings - IEEE INFOCOM).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Carrier sense multiple access
Scheduling
Wireless networks
Scheduling algorithms

Online advertisement, optimization and stochastic networks

Tan, B. & Srikant, R., Dec 1 2011, 2011 50th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control and European Control Conference, CDC-ECC 2011. p. 4504-4509 6 p. 6161009. (Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Decision and Control).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Online Optimization
Stochastic Networks
Online Algorithms
Query
Service charge

On the achievable throughput of CSMA under imperfect carrier sensing

Kim, T. H., Ni, J., Srikant, R. & Vaidya, N. H., Aug 2 2011, 2011 Proceedings IEEE INFOCOM. p. 1674-1682 9 p. 5934962. (Proceedings - IEEE INFOCOM).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Carrier sense multiple access
Throughput
Markov processes

Parametrized stochastic multi-armed bandits with binary rewards

Jiang, C. & Srikant, R., 2011, Proceedings of the 2011 American Control Conference, ACC 2011. p. 119-124 6 p. 5991289

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Scheduling for small delay in multi-rate multi-channel wireless networks

Bodas, S., Shakkottai, S., Ying, L. & Srikant, R., Aug 2 2011, 2011 Proceedings IEEE INFOCOM. p. 1251-1259 9 p. 5934906. (Proceedings - IEEE INFOCOM).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Markov processes
Wireless networks
Scheduling
Scheduling algorithms
Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing

The stability of Longest-Queue-First scheduling with variable packet sizes

Maguluri, S. T., Hajek, B. & Srikant, R., Dec 1 2011, 2011 50th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control and European Control Conference, CDC-ECC 2011. p. 3770-3775 6 p. 6161014. (Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Decision and Control).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Queue
Scheduling
Throughput
Pooling
Ad hoc networks
2010

Coloring spatial point processes with applications to peer discovery in large wireless networks

Ni, J., Srikant, R. & Wu, X., Jul 30 2010, SIGMETRICS'10 - Proceedings of the 2010 ACM SIGMETRICS International Conference on Measurement and Modeling of Computer Systems. 1 SPEC. ISSUE ed. p. 167-178 12 p. (Performance Evaluation Review; vol. 38, no. 1 SPEC. ISSUE).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Coloring
Wireless networks
Color
Wireless ad hoc networks

Low-complexity scheduling algorithms for multi-channel downlink wireless networks

Bodas, S., Shakkottai, S., Ying, L. & Srikant, R., Jun 15 2010, 2010 Proceedings IEEE INFOCOM. 5462047. (Proceedings - IEEE INFOCOM).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Scheduling algorithms
Wireless networks
Throughput
Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing
Computational complexity

On the design of efficient CSMA algorithms for wireless networks

Ghaderi, J. & Srikant, R., Dec 1 2010, 2010 49th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, CDC 2010. p. 954-959 6 p. 5717965. (Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Decision and Control).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Carrier sense multiple access
Wireless Networks
Wireless networks
Optimality
Throughput

Optimal scheduling for fair resource allocation in ad hoc networks with elastic and inelastic traffic

Jaramillo, J. J. & Srikant, R., Jun 15 2010, 2010 Proceedings IEEE INFOCOM. 5462048. (Proceedings - IEEE INFOCOM).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Ad hoc networks
Resource allocation
Scheduling
Wireless ad hoc networks
Circuit theory

Performance bounds of distributed CSMA scheduling

Jiang, L., Ni, J., Srikant, R. & Walrand, J., May 31 2010, 2010 Information Theory and Applications Workshop, ITA 2010 - Conference Proceedings. p. 204-209 6 p. 5454123. (2010 Information Theory and Applications Workshop, ITA 2010 - Conference Proceedings).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Carrier sense multiple access
Scheduling
Markov processes
Throughput
Scheduling algorithms