University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

  • Urbana

    United States

Research Output

Filter
Conference contribution

Automatic handling of global variables for multi-threaded MPI programs

Zheng, G., Negara, S., Mendes, C. L., Kale, L. V. & Rodrigues, E. R., Dec 1 2011, Proceedings - 2011 17th IEEE International Conference on Parallel and Distributed Systems, ICPADS 2011. p. 220-227 8 p. 6121281. (Proceedings of the International Conference on Parallel and Distributed Systems - ICPADS).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Automatic ground control point data collection through autonomous mobile robot

Zhang, Y., Gao, F., Tian, L. & Ahamed, T., Dec 1 2009, ICMET'09 - Proceedings of the 2009 International Conference on Mechanical and Electrical Technology. p. 87-91 5 p. (ICMET'09 - Proceedings of the 2009 International Conference on Mechanical and Electrical Technology).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Automatic grasp selection using a camera in a hand prosthesis

Degol, J., Akhtar, A., Manja, B. & Bretl, T., Oct 13 2016, 2016 38th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBC 2016. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., p. 431-434 4 p. 7590732. (Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBS; vol. 2016-October).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Automatic glomerulus extraction in whole slide images towards computer aided diagnosis

Zhao, Y., Black, E. F., Marini, L., McHenry, K., Kenyon, N., Patil, R., Balla, A. & Bartholomew, A., Mar 3 2017, Proceedings of the 2016 IEEE 12th International Conference on e-Science, e-Science 2016. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., p. 165-174 10 p. 7870897. (Proceedings of the 2016 IEEE 12th International Conference on e-Science, e-Science 2016).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Automatic Gleason grading of prostate cancer using SLIM and machine learning

Nguyen, T. H., Sridharan, S., Marcias, V., Balla, A. K., Do, M. N. & Popescu, G., Jan 1 2016, Quantitative Phase Imaging II. Popescu, G. & Park, Y. (eds.). SPIE, 97180Y. (Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE; vol. 9718).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Automatic generation of security argument graphs

Tippenhauer, N. O., Temple, W. G., Vu, A. H., Chen, B., Nicol, D. M., Kalbarczyk, Z. & Sanders, W. H., Dec 3 2014, Proceedings - 20th IEEE Pacific Rim International Symposium on Dependable Computing, PRDC 2014. IEEE Computer Society, p. 33-42 10 p. 6974749. (Proceedings of IEEE Pacific Rim International Symposium on Dependable Computing, PRDC).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Automatic generation of instruction sequences targeting hard-to-detect structural faults in a processor

Gurumurthy, S., Vasudevan, S. & Abraham, J. A., Jan 1 2006, 2006 IEEE International Test Conference, ITC. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 4079354. (Proceedings - International Test Conference).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Automatic generation of I/O kernels for HPC applications

Behzad, B., Dang, H. V., Hariri, F., Zhang, W. & Snir, M., Jan 20 2014, Proceedings of PDSW 2014: 9th Parallel Data Storage Workshop - Held in Conjunction with SC 2014: The International Conference for High Performance Computing, Networking, Storage and Analysis. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., p. 31-36 6 p. 7016280. (Proceedings of PDSW 2014: 9th Parallel Data Storage Workshop - Held in Conjunction with SC 2014: The International Conference for High Performance Computing, Networking, Storage and Analysis).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Automatic generation of assertions from system level design using data mining

Liu, L., Sheridan, D., Athavale, V. & Vasudevan, S., Sep 1 2011, 9th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Formal Methods and Models for Codesign, MEMOCODE 2011. p. 191-200 10 p. 5970526. (9th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Formal Methods and Models for Codesign, MEMOCODE 2011).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Automatic generation of a parallel sorting algorithm

Garber, B. A., Hoeflinger, D., Li, X., Garzarán, M. J. & Padua, D., Sep 10 2008, IPDPS Miami 2008 - Proceedings of the 22nd IEEE International Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium, Program and CD-ROM. 4536400. (IPDPS Miami 2008 - Proceedings of the 22nd IEEE International Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium, Program and CD-ROM).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Automatic generation control and its implementation in real time

Apostolopoulou, D., Sauer, P. W. & Domínguez-García, A. D., Jan 1 2014, Proceedings of the 47th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, HICSS 2014. IEEE Computer Society, p. 2444-2452 9 p. 6758906. (Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Automatic execution of single-GPU computations across multiple GPUs

Cabezas, J., Vilanova, L., Gelado, I., Jablin, T. B., Navarro, N. & Hwu, W-M. W., Jan 1 2014, PACT 2014 - Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Parallel Architectures and Compilation Techniques. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., p. 467-468 2 p. (Parallel Architectures and Compilation Techniques - Conference Proceedings, PACT).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Automatic event extraction with structured preference modeling

Lu, W. & Roth, D., Dec 1 2012, 50th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, ACL 2012 - Proceedings of the Conference. p. 835-844 10 p. (50th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, ACL 2012 - Proceedings of the Conference; vol. 1).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Automatic entity recognition and typing in massive text data

Ren, X., El-Kishky, A., Ji, H. & Han, J., Jun 26 2016, SIGMOD 2016 - Proceedings of the 2016 International Conference on Management of Data. Association for Computing Machinery, p. 2235-2239 5 p. (Proceedings of the ACM SIGMOD International Conference on Management of Data; vol. 26-June-2016).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Automatic entity recognition and typing from massive text corpora: A phrase and network mining approach

Ren, X., El-Kishky, A., Wang, C. & Han, J., Aug 10 2015, KDD 2015 - Proceedings of the 21st ACM SIGKDD Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining. Association for Computing Machinery, p. 2319-2320 2 p. (Proceedings of the ACM SIGKDD International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining; vol. 2015-August).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Automatic discovery of coarse-grained parallelism in media applications

Ryoo, S., Ueng, S. Z., Rodrigues, C. I., Kidd, R. E., Frank, M. I. & Hwu, W. M. W., Dec 1 2007, Transactions on High-Performance Embedded Architectures and Compilers I. p. 194-213 20 p. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics); vol. 4050 LNCS).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Automatic detection of ultrasound contrast microbubble shell rupture

Ammi, A. Y., Bridal, L., Mamou, J., Wang, G. I. & O'Brien, W. D., Dec 1 2006, 2006 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium, IUS. p. 297-300 4 p. 4151943. (Proceedings - IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium; vol. 1).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Automatic detection of nondeterminacy in parallel programs

Emrath, P. A. & Padua, D. A., Nov 1 1988, Proceedings of the 1988 ACM SIGPLAN and SIGOPS Workshop on Parallel and Distributed Debugging, PADD 1988. Wexelbalt, R. L. (ed.). Association for Computing Machinery, Inc, p. 89-99 11 p. (Proceedings of the 1988 ACM SIGPLAN and SIGOPS Workshop on Parallel and Distributed Debugging, PADD 1988).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Automatic datatype generation and optimization

Kjolstad, F., Hoefler, T. & Snir, M., Mar 22 2012, PPoPP'12 - Proceedings of the 2012 ACM SIGPLAN Symposium on Principles and Practice of Parallel Programming. p. 327-328 2 p. (Proceedings of the ACM SIGPLAN Symposium on Principles and Practice of Parallel Programming, PPOPP).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Automatic construction of a context-aware sentiment lexicon: An optimization approach

Lu, Y., Castellanos, M., Dayal, U. & Zhai, C. X., Dec 1 2011, Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on World Wide Web, WWW 2011. p. 347-356 10 p. (Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on World Wide Web, WWW 2011).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Automatic construction and ranking of topical keyphrases on collections of short documents

Danilevsky, M., Wang, C., Desai, N., Ren, X., Guo, J. & Han, J., Jan 1 2014, SIAM International Conference on Data Mining 2014, SDM 2014. Zaki, M. J., Banerjee, A., Parthasarathy, S., Ning-Tan, P., Obradovic, Z. & Kamath, C. (eds.). Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics Publications, p. 398-406 9 p. (SIAM International Conference on Data Mining 2014, SDM 2014; vol. 1).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Automatic compositional reasoning for probabilistic model checking of hardware designs

Kumar, J. A. & Vasudevan, S., Dec 2 2010, Proceedings - 7th International Conference on the Quantitative Evaluation of Systems, QEST 2010. p. 143-152 10 p. 5600395. (Proceedings - 7th International Conference on the Quantitative Evaluation of Systems, QEST 2010).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Automatic clustering of wafer spatial signatures

Zhang, W., Li, X., Saxena, S., Strojwas, A. & Rutenbar, R., Jul 12 2013, Proceedings of the 50th Annual Design Automation Conference, DAC 2013. 71. (Proceedings - Design Automation Conference).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Automatic bus planner for dense PCBs

Hui, K., Tan, Y. & Wong, M. D. F., 2009, 2009 46th ACM/IEEE Design Automation Conference, DAC 2009. p. 326-331 6 p. 5227133

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Automatic assessment of complex assignments using topic models

Kuzi, S., Cope, W., Ferguson, D., Geigle, C. & Zhai, C. X., Jun 24 2019, Proceedings of the 6th 2019 ACM Conference on Learning at Scale, L@S 2019. Association for Computing Machinery, Inc, (Proceedings of the 6th 2019 ACM Conference on Learning at Scale, L@S 2019).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Automatic and computationally efficient method for model selection in inertial sensor calibration

Molinari, R., Balamuta, J., Guerrier, S., Zhang, X. & Skaloud, J., Jan 1 2015, 28th International Technical Meeting of the Satellite Division of the Institute of Navigation, ION GNSS 2015. Institute of Navigation, p. 2003-2006 4 p. (28th International Technical Meeting of the Satellite Division of the Institute of Navigation, ION GNSS 2015; vol. 3).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Automatic analysis of consistency properties of distributed transaction systems in maude

Liu, S., Ölveczky, P. C., Zhang, M., Wang, Q. & Meseguer, J., Jan 1 2019, Tools and Algorithms for the Construction and Analysis of Systems - 25th International Conference, TACAS 2019, Held as Part of the European Joint Conferences on Theory and Practice of Software, ETAPS 2019, Proceedings. Zhang, L. & Vojnar, T. (eds.). Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, p. 40-57 18 p. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics); vol. 11428 LNCS).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Open Access

Automatically generating security models from system models to aid in the evaluation of AMI deployment options

Rausch, M., Keefe, K., Feddersen, B. & Sanders, W. H., Jan 1 2018, Critical Information Infrastructures Security - 12th International Conference, CRITIS 2017, Revised Selected Papers. D’Agostino, G. & Scala, A. (eds.). Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, p. 156-167 12 p. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics); vol. 10707 LNCS).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Automatically generating gene summaries from biomedical literature

Ling, X., Jiang, J., He, X., Mei, Q., Zhai, C. & Schatz, B. R., Dec 1 2006, Proceedings of the Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing 2006, PSB 2006. p. 40-51 12 p. (Proceedings of the Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing 2006, PSB 2006).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Automatically correcting networks with NEAT

Zhou, W., Croft, J., Liu, B., Ang, E. & Caesar, M., 2018, Proceedings of the 15th USENIX Symposium on Networked Systems Design and Implementation, NSDI 2018. USENIX Association, p. 595-608 14 p. (Proceedings of the 15th USENIX Symposium on Networked Systems Design and Implementation, NSDI 2018).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Automatic 3d modeling of structural and mechanical components from point clouds

Perez-Perez, Y., Golparvar-Fard, M. & El-Rayes, K., Jan 1 2018, Construction Research Congress 2018: Construction Information Technology - Selected Papers from the Construction Research Congress 2018. Wang, C., Berryman, C., Harris, R., Harper, C. & Lee, Y. (eds.). American Society of Civil Engineers, p. 501-511 11 p. (Construction Research Congress 2018: Construction Information Technology - Selected Papers from the Construction Research Congress 2018; vol. 2018-April).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Automated worker activity analysis in indoor environments for direct-work rate improvement from long sequences of RGB-D images

Khosrowpour, A., Fedorov, I., Holynski, A., Niebles, J. C. & Golparvar Fard, M., Jan 1 2014, Construction Research Congress 2014: Construction in a Global Network - Proceedings of the 2014 Construction Research Congress. American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), p. 729-738 10 p. (Construction Research Congress 2014: Construction in a Global Network - Proceedings of the 2014 Construction Research Congress).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Automated wireless monitoring system for cable tension using smart sensors

Sim, S. H., Li, J., Jo, H., Park, J., Cho, S., Spencer, B. F. & Yun, C. B., Jun 12 2013, Sensors and Smart Structures Technologies for Civil, Mechanical, and Aerospace Systems 2013. 86922B. (Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering; vol. 8692).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Automated verification of potential GPS signal-in-space anomalies using ground observation data

Heng, L., Gao, G. X., Walter, T. & Enge, P., Sep 19 2012, Proceedings of the 2012 IEEE/ION Position, Location and Navigation Symposium, PLANS 2012. p. 1111-1118 8 p. 6236965. (Record - IEEE PLANS, Position Location and Navigation Symposium).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Automated test input generation for android: Are we really there yet in an industrial case?

Zeng, X., Li, D., Zheng, W., Xia, F., Deng, Y., Lam, W., Yang, W. & Xie, T., Nov 1 2016, FSE 2016 - Proceedings of the 2016 24th ACM SIGSOFT International Symposium on Foundations of Software Engineering. Su, Z., Zimmermann, T. & Cleland-Huang, J. (eds.). Association for Computing Machinery, p. 987-992 6 p. (Proceedings of the ACM SIGSOFT Symposium on the Foundations of Software Engineering; vol. 13-18-November-2016).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Automated test input generation for android: Towards getting there in an industrial case

Zheng, H., Li, D., Liang, B., Zeng, X., Zheng, W., Deng, Y., Lam, W., Yang, W. & Xie, T., Jun 30 2017, Proceedings - 2017 IEEE/ACM 39th International Conference on Software Engineering: Software Engineering in Practice Track, ICSE-SEIP 2017. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., p. 253-262 10 p. 7965449. (Proceedings - 2017 IEEE/ACM 39th International Conference on Software Engineering: Software Engineering in Practice Track, ICSE-SEIP 2017).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Automated testing of refactoring engines

Daniel, B., Dig, D., Garcia, K. & Marinov, D., Dec 1 2007, 6th Joint Meeting of the European Software Engineering Conference and the ACM SIGSOFT Symposium on the Foundations of Software Engineering, ESEC/FSE 2007. p. 185-194 10 p. (6th Joint Meeting of the European Software Engineering Conference and the ACM SIGSOFT Symposium on the Foundations of Software Engineering, ESEC/FSE 2007).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Automated systematic testing of open distributed programs

Sen, K. & Agha, G., Jan 1 2006, Fundamental Approaches to Software Engineering - 9th International Conference, FASE 2006. Held as Part of the Joint European Conferences on Theory and Practice of Software, ETAPS 2006, Proceedings. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, p. 339-356 18 p. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics); vol. 3922 LNCS).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Open Access

Automated regulatory information extraction from building codes leveraging syntactic and semantic information

Zhang, J. & EL-Gohary, N., Sep 19 2012, Construction Research Congress 2012: Construction Challenges in a Flat World, Proceedings of the 2012 Construction Research Congress. p. 622-632 11 p. (Construction Research Congress 2012: Construction Challenges in a Flat World, Proceedings of the 2012 Construction Research Congress).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Automated registration of multimodality images by maximization of a region similarity measure

Liang, Z-P., Pan, H., Magin, R. L., Ahuja, N. & Huang, T. S., Dec 1 1997, IEEE International Conference on Image Processing. IEEE Comp Soc, Vol. 3. p. 272-275 4 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Automated region segmentation using attraction-based grouping in spatial-color-texture space

Rui, Y., She, A. C. & Huang, T. S., 1996, IEEE International Conference on Image Processing. Anon (ed.). IEEE, Vol. 1. p. 53-56 4 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Automated reasoning for regulatory compliance checking in the construction domain

Zhang, J. & El-Gohary, N. M., Jan 1 2014, Construction Research Congress 2014: Construction in a Global Network - Proceedings of the 2014 Construction Research Congress. American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), p. 907-916 10 p. (Construction Research Congress 2014: Construction in a Global Network - Proceedings of the 2014 Construction Research Congress).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Automated reasoning and natural proofs for programs manipulating data structures

Parthasarathy, M., 2012, 32nd International Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science, FSTTCS 2012. Vol. 18. p. 34-35 2 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Automated pollen identification system for forensic geo-historical location applications

Hwang, G. M., Riley, K. C., Christou, C. T., Jacyna, G. M., Woodard, J. P., Ryan, R. M., Bush, M. B., Valencia, B. G., McMichael, C. N. H., Punyasena, S. W. & Masters, D. L., Dec 1 2013, 2013 IEEE International Conference on Technologies for Homeland Security, HST 2013. p. 297-303 7 p. 6699018. (2013 IEEE International Conference on Technologies for Homeland Security, HST 2013).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Automated photopeak detection and analysis in low resolution gamma-ray spectra for isotope identification

Sullivan, C. J. & Lu, J., Jan 1 2013, 2013 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference, NSS/MIC 2013. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 6829437. (IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Automated nuclear segmentation of coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering microscopy images by coupling superpixel context information with artificial neural networks

Hammoudi, A. A., Li, F., Gao, L., Wang, Z., Thrall, M. J., Massoud, Y. & Wong, S. T. C., Oct 17 2011, Machine Learning in Medical Imaging - Second International Workshop, MLMI 2011, Held in Conjunction with MICCAI 2011, Proceedings. p. 317-325 9 p. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics); vol. 7009 LNCS).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Automated monitoring of operation-level construction progress using 4D bim and daily site photologs

Han, K. K. & Golparvar-Fard, M., Jan 1 2014, Construction Research Congress 2014: Construction in a Global Network - Proceedings of the 2014 Construction Research Congress. American Society of Civil Engineers, p. 1033-1042 10 p. (Construction Research Congress 2014: Construction in a Global Network - Proceedings of the 2014 Construction Research Congress).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Automated model-based recognition of progress using daily construction photographs and IFC-based 4D models

Golparvar Fard, M., Savarese, S. & Peña-Mora, F., Sep 10 2010, Construction Research Congress 2010: Innovation for Reshaping Construction Practice - Proceedings of the 2010 Construction Research Congress. p. 51-60 10 p. (Construction Research Congress 2010: Innovation for Reshaping Construction Practice - Proceedings of the 2010 Construction Research Congress).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Automated mobility analysis of wire flexure systems

Satheeshbabu, S. & Krishnan, G., Jan 1 2016, 40th Mechanisms and Robotics Conference. American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), (Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference; vol. 5A-2016).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Automated Mining of Construction Schedules for Easy and Quick Assembly of 4D BIM Simulations

Torres-Calderon, W., Chi, Y., Amer, F. & Golparvar-Fard, M., Jan 1 2019, Computing in Civil Engineering 2019: Visualization, Information Modeling, and Simulation - Selected Papers from the ASCE International Conference on Computing in Civil Engineering 2019. Cho, Y. K., Leite, F., Behzadan, A. & Wang, C. (eds.). American Society of Civil Engineers, p. 432-438 7 p. (Computing in Civil Engineering 2019: Visualization, Information Modeling, and Simulation - Selected Papers from the ASCE International Conference on Computing in Civil Engineering 2019).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution