This lexicon is the expanded/enhanced version of the Moral Foundation Dictionary created by Graham and colleagues (Graham et al., 2013).
Our Enhanced Morality Lexicon (EML) contains a list of 4,636 morality related words.

This lexicon was used in the following paper - please cite this paper if you use this resource in your work.

Rezapour, R., Shah, S., & Diesner, J. (2019). Enhancing the measurement of social effects by capturing morality. Proceedings of the 10th Workshop on Computational Approaches to Subjectivity, Sentiment and Social Media Analysis (WASSA). Annual Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics (NAACL), Minneapolis, MN.

In addition, please consider citing the original MFD paper:

<a href="">Graham, J., Haidt, J., Koleva, S., Motyl, M., Iyer, R., Wojcik, S. P., & Ditto, P. H. (2013). Moral foundations theory: The pragmatic validity of moral pluralism. In Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 47, pp. 55-130)</a>.
Date made availableJun 13 2019
PublisherUniversity of Illinois Urbana-Champaign


  • morality
  • lexicon

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